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Headword: *zw=|a
Adler number: zeta,111
Translated headword: animals
Vetting Status: high
[Philoponus says] that it is said that animals have their head in the upper part [sc. of their body], not at all with reference to the sky[1] surrounding them, but [thinking of] where the movement has its origin. And although most of the irrational animals -- almost all of them -- on earth are bowed forward, so that their head does not tower upon the back parts, yet it is said that the head and the regions near the head are the upper part of the animal's body. However, in the case of plants,[2] with reference to the sky, one might say that their upper parts are the branches and leaves, but with reference to the origin of movement -- and this is more natural -- the upper parts consist in the roots, the lower in the branches. For this reason, the roots are assimilated to the head and especially to the mouth, for it is through the roots, as through a mouth, that food is ministered and distributed to the body.
Greek Original:
*zw=|a: o(/ti ta\ zw=|a a)/nw e)/xein th\n kefalh\n le/getai, ou) pa/ntws w(s pro\s to\ pe/ric lambano/mena, a)ll' w(s o(/qen h( a)rxh\ th=s kinh/sews. kai\ tw=n a)lo/gwn toi/nun zw/|wn tw=n plei/stwn, sxedo\n de\ pa/ntwn, e)pi\ gh=s kekufo/twn, w(s mhde\ tw=n o)pisqi/wn e)pi\ to\ pe/ric e)/xein th\n kefalh/n, o(/mws le/getai ta\ a)/nw tw=n zw/|wn me/rh ei)=nai kefalh/ te kai\ ta\ peri\ th\n kefalh/n. kai\ e)pi\ tw=n futw=n toi/nun, w(s me\n pro\s ta\ pe/ric, a)/nw le/gointo oi( kla/doi kai\ ta\ fu/lla: w(s de\ pro\s to\ o(/qen h( a)rxh\ th=s kinh/sews, kai\ ma=llo/n e)sti sumfue/s, a)/nw me\n ai( r(i/zai, ka/tw de\ oi( kla/doi. dio\ kai\ a)nalogou=si kefalh=| kai\ mh\n kai\ sto/mati. di' au)tw=n ga\r w(s dia\ sto/matos h( trofh\ xorhgei=tai kai\ dioxeteu/etai tw=| sw/mati.
The entry stems from John Philoponus, Commentary on Aristotle's De anima [2.4] 276.23-29, cf. 6-21.
[1] A comparison with further passages of Philoponus shows that the meaning of to\ pe/ric is actually "the sky" (to\ pe/ric pa=n a)/nw e)/stai: le/gw dh\ o( ou)rano/s), elsewhere defined as to\ perie/xon. For pe/ric, see pi 1211.
[2] A similar comparison with plants is made, post-Suda, in Michael of Ephesus' commentary on Aristotle's Progression of Animals.
Keywords: botany; food; medicine; philosophy; zoology
Translated by: Antonella Ippolito on 1 June 2005@21:53:47.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (tweaks to translation and notes; another keyword) on 2 June 2005@04:03:35.
Antonella Ippolito (added cross-reference; type) on 2 June 2005@20:43:46.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 30 November 2012@05:25:00.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 21 November 2014@10:41:34.
David Whitehead (coding and other cosmetics) on 25 March 2016@11:19:32.


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