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Headword: *timago/ras
Adler number: tau,591
Translated headword: Timagoras
Vetting Status: high
This man, sent as an envoy by the Athenians to king Artaxerxes [of Persia], took from him not only gold and silver but also an expensive couch and soldiers in attendance[1] and 80 cows,[2] and was conveyed to the coast in a litter; and the wage given to those who had conveyed him from the king was 4 talents. So the Athenians destroyed him.
Others, though, say that [it was because] he had promised to undermine the existing friendship between Sparta and Athens. Consequently, this Timagoras was destroyed by the Athenians after he had prostrated himself before the Persian king, contrary to Greek customs,[3] and accepted bribes.
Greek Original:
*timago/ras: ou(=tos presbeuth\s pemfqei\s pro\s basile/a *)arta- ce/rchn u(po\ *)aqhnai/wn, ou) mo/non xrusi/on e)/labe par' au)tou= kai\ a)rgu/rion, a)lla\ kai\ kli/nhn polutelh= kai\ stratiw/tas qera/pontas kai\ bou=s p# kai\ kate/bh e)pi\ qa/lassan e)n forei/w| komizo/menos: kai\ toi=s komi/sasi para\ basile/ws e)do/qh misqo\s ta/lanta d#. tou=ton ou)=n a)nei=lon *)aqhnai=oi. oi( de/ fasin u(pesxh=sqai au)to\n dialu/sein th\n ou)=san *lakedaimoni/ois kai\ *)aqhnai/ois fili/an. ou(=tos ou)=n o( *timago/ras proskunh/sas to\n *persw=n basile/a para\ ta\ *(ellh/nwn e)/qh kai\ dwrodokhqei\s u(po\ *)aqhnai/wn a)nh|re/qh.
= Photius, Lexicon tau299 Theodoridis, on a scandal of the year 368/7 BCE. Besides Plutarch (Artaxerxes 22 and Pelopidas 30), cited by Adler, see Xenophon, Hellenica 7.1.33ff (web address 1); Demosthenes 19.31,137,191 (web address 2); Athenaeus, Deipnosophists 2.48D-E [2.31 Kaibel], 6.251B [6.58 Kaibel].
[1] So the Suda's text, stratiw/tas qera/pontas, which Theodoridis notes as a unilateral correction of Photius' (correct) strwta\s qera/pontas "attendants to make up the beds"; the latter phrase is guaranteed by Plutarch and Athenaeus.
[2] Definitely cows rather than oxen; Plutarch says that Timagoras wanted a constant supply of milk.
[3] On proskynesis -- acknowledging a superior with a gesture which, as appropriate, ranged between mere bowing and actual prostration -- see (e.g.) A.B. Bosworth, Conquest and Empire: the reign of Alexander the Great (Cambridge 1988) 284-7. It was "contrary to Greek customs" in the sense that in Greek eyes it was a cult act performed for gods only.
M.H. Hansen, Eisangelia (Odense 1975) no.82 (the prosecution of T. by his fellow-envoy Leon)
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: biography; economics; ethics; food; geography; historiography; history; law; politics; religion; zoology
Translated by: David Whitehead on 27 June 2001@04:19:42.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (added links, set status) on 26 October 2004@01:22:21.
David Whitehead (another keyword; restorative and other cosmetics) on 26 October 2004@03:16:24.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticules) on 26 October 2004@11:35:46.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 14 May 2008@08:36:24.
David Whitehead on 14 August 2011@07:06:05.
Catharine Roth (fixed links) on 19 September 2011@23:02:05.
David Whitehead on 13 January 2014@06:24:22.
David Whitehead (expanded notes) on 26 March 2014@07:20:09.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note numbers) on 27 March 2014@21:10:51.
David Whitehead on 15 January 2015@08:05:28.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 25 March 2015@00:33:31.


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