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Headword: *)ofqalmo/s
Adler number: omicron,1011
Translated headword: eye
Vetting Status: high
Aristotle wonders whether the perception of things that are objects of perception is apprehensible, and [whether] the organs of senses through which we have perception also are objects of perception, [and] why perception does not apprehend each one of them when nothing external is present. For instance, why the eye does not see itself if it is composed out of those things that are seeable (I mean the elements, of course). [...] So what [is] the solution? That perception is in potentiality what precisely it is, but all that is in potentiality is led toward actuality by the action of something that is in actuality. So perception, which is in potentiality, is also led toward actuality by what is an object of perception, since the external object of perception [...] also is in actuality. [...] But if it is led toward actuality by what is an object of perception, and the organ of sense in which perception is also is an object of perception, why it is not led toward actuality by such [an organ of perception]? Otherwise, if it is not possible for perception to apprehend its own organ of sense, which is an object of perception, why does it sometimes apprehend its excesses? For the sense of touch does not apprehend the natural heat existing in any body. But when the heat [present] in us falls into disproportion, such as occurs in the case of fevers, then, [the sense of touch] perceives heat. And similarly, sight does not apprehend the eye which is in its natural condition, such as happens in the case of wet things or the color of tunics. But when it suffers something contrary to nature, such as occurs to those suffering jaundice, it has a perception of the yellowness of the eye; that is why people think that everything is yellow. Similarly also if some other humor falls on the crystalline [lens], it also apprehends the color and its form. Hence also in the beginnings of cataracts, before the activity of the eye-pupil is completely hindered by being blocked, people seem to see mosquitoes and things of that sort.
Greek Original:
*)ofqalmo/s: diaporei= *)aristote/lhs, ei) h( ai)/sqhsis tw=n ai)sqhtw=n e)stin a)ntilhptikh/, ai)sqhta\ de\ kai\ ta\ ai)sqhth/ria di' w(=n ai)sqano/meqa, dia\ ti/ ou)xi\ e(ka/stou tou/twn h( ai)/sqhsis a)ntilamba/netai, kai\ mhdeno\s e)/cwqen paro/ntos. oi(=on dia\ ti/ o( o)fqalmo\s ou)x o(ra=| e(auto\n sugkei/menos e)k tou/twn a(/ e)stin o(rata/, le/gw dh\ tw=n stoixei/wn: ti/s ou)=n h( lu/sis; dio/ti h( ai)/sqhsis duna/mei me/n e)sti tou=to o(/per e)sti/, pa=n de\ to\ duna/mei proa/getai ei)s e)ne/rgeian u(po/ tinos e)nergei/a| o)/ntos: ou)kou=n kai\ h( ai)/sqhsis duna/mei ou)=sa proa/getai ei)s e)ne/rgeian u(po\ tou= ai)sqhtou=, ai)sqhtou= de\ tou= e)/cwqen kai\ e)nergei/a| o)/ntos. a)ll' ei) u(po\ tou= ai)sqhtou= proa/getai ei)s e)ne/rgeian, ai)sqhto\n de\ kai\ to\ ai)sqhth/rion, e)n w(=| h( ai)/sqhsis, dia\ ti/ mh\ kai\ u(po\ tou/tou proa/getai ei)s e)ne/rgeian; a)/llws te ei) mh\ oi(/a te/ e)stin h( ai)/sqhsis tou= oi)kei/ou ai)sqhthri/ou a)ntilamba/nesqai ai)sqhtou= ge o)/ntos, ti/ dh/pote tw=n u(perbolw=n au)tou= a)ntilamba/netai; th=s me\n ga\r kata\ fu/sin qermasi/as th=s e)n tw=| panti\ sw/mati h( a(ptikh\ ai)/sqhsis ou)k a)ntilamba/netai: e)peida\n me/ntoi ei)s a)metri/an h( e)n h(mi=n qermo/ths e)kpe/sh|, w(s e)pi\ tw=n puretw=n, to\ thnikau=ta ai)sqa/netai tau/ths. kai\ h( o)/yis o(moi/ws tou= me\n o)fqalmou= kata\ fu/sin e)/xontos ou)k a)ntilamba/netai, oi(=on poi=o/n e)sti to\ tw=n u(grw=n, to\ tw=n xitw/nwn xrw=ma: e)peida\n me/ntoi para\ fu/sin ti pa/qh|, w(s e)pi\ tw=n i)kteriw/ntwn, th=s e)pi\ tw=| o)fqalmw=| w)xria/sews ai)/sqhsin i)/sxei: dio\ oi)/ontai pa/nta w)xra\ ei)=nai. o(moi/ws kai\ ei) a)/llos tis xumo\s e)nskh/yei e)n tw=| krustalloeidei=, kai\ tou= xrw/matos kai\ tou= sxh/matos au)tou= a)ntilamba/netai. o(/qen kai\ e)n tai=s a)rxai=s tw=n e)pixu/sewn, pri\n telei/ws kwluqh=| h( e)ne/rgeia th=s ko/rhs skepasqei/shs, dokou=sin o(ra=n kw/nwpas kai/ tina toiau=ta.
Abridged from John Philoponus, Commentary on Aristotle's de anima 291.2-33 Hayduck (with some variations).
Keywords: medicine; philosophy; science and technology; zoology
Translated by: Marcelo Boeri on 27 October 2003@12:58:39.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (removed misplaced translation material (and associated note and keyword); internal rearrangement; other cosmetics) on 28 October 2003@08:29:18.
David Whitehead (tweaks to tr; more keywords) on 3 August 2009@10:11:08.
Catharine Roth (tweaks) on 30 July 2010@13:43:06.
Catharine Roth (tweaks, status) on 30 July 2010@14:18:19.
David Whitehead on 2 August 2013@07:18:14.


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