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Headword: *metabolh/
Adler number: mu,681
Translated headword: change; about-turn
Vetting Status: high
It is produced in accordance with 4 modalities: [those] of corruption, of alteration, of decay, of growth. And it is considered in four categories: in substance, like generation and corruption; in quantity, [like] growth and diminution; in quality, like alteration (such as 'whitening', 'blackening'); and in location, such as up, down, at the Lyceum, at the market.[1] But change is mostly of motion, for what is in motion must exist in order to be moved also, and what is liable to generation and corruption does not remain what precisely was [before]. And [note] that what is in motion involves change with regard to the same substratum, [and] the motion has no effect on the substance of the substratum. However, what is liable to generation and corruption is not produced in the substratum, but, such as what is being generated changes from matter into form, [so too] what is being corrupted, on the contrary, [changes from form into matter].[2]
'About-turn'[3] is the double turn [klisis] in the same direction, changing what the hoplites are looking at rearwards;[4] alternatively two versions, the one [turning] from the enemy, which they also name 'to the rear', and the one towards the enemy. Some also sketch it thus: an about-turn is an alteration of the preexisting appearance towards the appearance by the rear, or from this to the contrary. And whereas the double about-turn 'from' the enemy results from men turning to the spear-side, the double one 'towards' the enemy [is] to the shield-side.[5]
Greek Original:
*metabolh/: kata\ d# tro/pous gi/netai: fqora=s, a)lloiw/sews, fqi/sews, au)ch/sews. kai\ e)n te/ssarsi qewrei=tai kathgori/ais: e)n ou)si/a| me\n w(s ge/nesis kai\ fqora/: e)n posw=| de\ au)/chsis kai\ mei/wsis: e)n poiw=| de\ w(s a)lloi/wsis, oi(=on leu/kansis, me/lansis: e)n de\ tw=| pou=, oi(=on a)/nw, ka/tw, e)n *lukei/w|, e)n a)gora=|. e)pi\ ple/on de\ th=s kinh/sews h( metabolh/: to\ ga\r kinou/menon dei= ei)=nai, i(/na kai\ kinh=tai, to\ de\ gino/menon h)\ fqeiro/menon ou) me/nei o(/per h)=n. kai\ o(/ti to\ kinou/menon peri\ to\ au)to\ u(pokei/menon i)/sxei metabolh/n, mhde\n th=s kinh/sews ei)s th\n ou)si/an tou= u(pokeime/nou suntelou/shs. to\ me/ntoi gino/menon kai\ fqeiro/menon ou)k e)n u(pokeime/nw| gi/netai, a)ll' oi(=on e)c u(/lhs ei)s ei)=dos metaba/llei to\ gino/menon, kai\ to\ fqeiro/menon e)/mpalin. *metabolh/ e)stin h( di\s e)pi\ to\ au)to\ ginome/nh kli/sis kata\ nw/tou ta\s tw=n o(plitw=n o)/yeis metatiqei=sa: h)\ du/o diaforai/, h( me\n a)po\ tw=n polemi/wn, h(\n kai\ e)p' ou)ra\n e)ponoma/zousin, h( de\ e)pi\ tou\s polemi/ous. e)/nioi de\ kai\ au)th\n ou(/tws u(pogra/fousi: metabolh/ e)sti meta/lhyis th=s prou+parxou/shs e)pifanei/as ei)s th\n kat' ou)ra\n e)pifa/neian, h)\ a)po\ tau/ths e)pi\ th\n e)nanti/an. kai\ h( me\n a)po\ tw=n polemi/wn metabolh\ di\s e)pi\ do/ru klina/ntwn gi/netai, h( d' e)pi\ tou\s polemi/ous di\s e)p' a)spi/da.
The principal paragraph here draws on John Philoponus, Commentary on Aristotle's de anima 98.23-34 Hayduck; the second switches to a military handbook.
[1] These 'four modalities' of change are based, in a very general terms, on Aristotelian positions, and coincide with change, as it is examined under the category of substance (corruption), of quality (alteration), and of quantity (growth), as described in the following line.
[2] This describes in general terms Aristotle's doctrine of change, as it is expounded in detail in Physics 1.4-7. Aristotle puts forwards three principles of any change (both substantial – generation-corruption – and relative – alteration or quantitative change: growth and diminution): (1) the substratum or what underlies any change (which identified with matter), (2) privation, the negative determination the 'thing' in process of change has before acquiring the positive determination or (3) form, which turns out to be that for the sake of which the process of change is done. Both privation and form are assumed to be contraries, and the change is understood as a process going from a contrary ('not pale') to the other contrary ('pale'). The same thing can be applied in cases of 'substantial change', such as what goes from an entity to a non-entity (corruption), or what goes from a non-entity to an entity (generation; see Physics 224b35-225a11). Even in the cases of substantial change or generation without qualification (ge/nesis a(plh=) there must be something underlying, i.e. a substratum.
[3] cf. in brief Polybius 18.30.4.
[4] For klisis see generally kappa 1816, kappa 1817. That this metabole is a 'double' klisis implies a standard turn of 90 degrees to right or left.
[5] Since the spear was carried in the right hand and the shield on the left arm, these are standard terms (from the fifth century BCE onwards) for right and left.
Keywords: definition; historiography; military affairs; philosophy; rhetoric
Translated by: Marcelo Boeri on 13 July 2003@03:39:35.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation, esp in military section; augmented notes; added keyword; cosmetics) on 13 July 2003@06:25:00.
David Whitehead (tweaking) on 17 May 2013@06:06:29.
David Whitehead (coding) on 18 May 2016@03:49:45.
Catharine Roth (tweaks) on 15 August 2020@01:01:47.


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