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Headword: *katarra/ktai
Adler number: kappa,745
Translated headword: Cataracts [of the Danube], Kataraktenstreke, Iron Gate
Vetting Status: high
[These are] rocks in the Danube river, where a mountain somehow stands below the current across the whole width; when the river falls on all these [rocks], with a very great noise, it is pushed back, and crashing around the rocks, then rushing over it makes whirlpools and eddies and charybdises, as the current circles around. And in sum, the river in this place is not much different from the strait near Sicily.[1]
Greek Original:
*katarra/ktai: pe/trai e)n tw=| *)/istrw| potamw=|, o)/rous tro/pon tina\ u(po\ tw=| r(eu/mati e)pi\ panto\s tou= pla/tous u(popefuko/tos, oi(=s a(/pasin o( potamo\s e)mpi/ptwn meta\ megi/stou pata/gou a)nako/ptetai, kai\ kaxla/zwn peri\ tai=s pe/trais, e)/peita u(perfero/menos e(ligmou/s te kai\ palirroi/as kai\ xaru/bdeis, kukloume/nou tou= r(eu/matos, a)potelei=: kai\ to\ su/mpan, o( potamo\s kata\ tau=ta ta\ xwri/a ou) polu\ a)pe/oike tou= kata\ *sikeli/an porqmou=.
Attributed by Küster to either Eunapius or Menander Protector.
"From its headwaters in Germany’s Black Forest, the Danube winds its way through ten European countries to drain into the Black Sea. For much of its course, the river moves lazily through wide valleys, but as it enters the border region between Romania and Serbia, its banks narrow into a series of high cliffs. Here, the river carved a passage through the lower Carpathian Mountains to its north and the Balkan Mountains to its south, creating a series of four steep gorges. These gorges are known as the Iron Gate. ... The Danube is a major waterway for international trade, but the Iron Gate gorges created rapids and whirlpools that made navigation difficult. Control over this section of the Danube was gained with the construction of the Iron Gate Dam in the Sip Gorge. The dam, the white line across the river on the right side of the image, began operation in 1972. As the Danube deepened behind the dam, its expanding waters covered at least seven towns, including old Orsova and the island town of Ada Kaleh, a Turkish enclave." NASA Earth Observatory; see images at web address 1, Wikipedia entry at web address 2. See also epsilon 3019 with notes.
[1] For the Straits of Messina, inc. Charybdis (and Scylla), cf. sigma 709, chi 144.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: definition; geography; historiography
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 22 August 2006@19:59:38.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 23 August 2006@04:51:49.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 12 May 2008@12:14:29.
David Whitehead on 4 February 2013@07:24:29.
Catharine Roth (tweaked NASA link) on 11 January 2017@19:49:56.


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