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Headword: *klaro/tai
Adler number: kappa,1703
Translated headword: serfs
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] immigrants; like [the] Mariandynoi in [sc. Pontic] Herakleia and [the] Helots in Sparta[1] and [the] Penestai in Thessaly and [the] Kallikyrioi[2] in Syracuse.
Greek Original:
*klaro/tai: me/toikoi: w(s *mariandunoi\ e)n *(hraklei/a| kai\ *ei(/lwtes e)n *lakedai/moni kai\ e)n *qettali/a| *pene/stai kai\ *kalliku/rioi e)n *surakou/sais.
Same or similar entry, deriving from Pausanias the Atticist, in other lexica: see the references at Photius kappa758 Theodoridis. These are four excellent examples of "serfs" (klaro/tai or klarw=tai: literally men working a plot of land, Doric kla=ros, Attic-Ionic klh=ros), but the initial gloss goes astray. The defining characteristic of groups like these, which differentiated them from chattel-slaves, was that their residence in Herakleia etc. predated that of those who became their masters. See generally e.g. Y. Garlan, Slavery in Ancient Greece (Ithaca NY & London 1988) chapter 2.
[1] cf. epsiloniota 132, epsiloniota 133, epsiloniota 134, epsiloniota 135.
[2] See already kappa 225.
Keywords: agriculture; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; history; law
Translated by: David Whitehead on 20 July 2001@10:25:16.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (augmented note, added keyword) on 8 October 2003@01:11:34.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 8 October 2003@03:44:00.
Catharine Roth (expanded note) on 27 November 2008@01:32:35.
David Whitehead on 27 February 2013@07:07:10.


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