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Headword: Τορκουᾶτος
Adler number: tau,791
Translated headword: Torquatus, Necklaced
Vetting Status: high
A surname; for the Gallic[1] people had been moved to descend on Italy; and when the forces were encamped opposite each other, a distinguished senator [called] Manlius challenged the king of the Gauls to single combat, because he was making all sorts of boasts including an offer to take on the best of the Romans. Manlius struck him down with an opportune blow, stripped the corpse, took off the necklace round his neck -- a characeristic item of Gallic adornment -- and wore it himself; and from this he was named Torquatus (which would be Necklace-bearing) by the citizens, and he bequeathed this name to his descendants as a memento of his bravery.[2]
Greek Original:
Τορκουᾶτος: ὄνομα κατ' ἐπίκλησιν: κινηθὲν γὰρ τὸ Κελτῶν ἔθνος κατὰ τῆς Ἰταλίας ἐρρύη: καὶ ἀντικαθεζομένων ἀλλήλοις τῶν στρατοπέδων, Μάλλιος ἀνὴρ τῶν ἀπὸ βουλῆς ἐπιφανὴς τὸν βασιλέα τῶν Κελτῶν τά τε ἄλλα μεγαληγορούμενον καὶ προσιέναι οἱ τὸν ἄριστον τῶν Ῥωμαίων ἐς ἰδιάζουσαν συμπλοκὴν προκαλούμενον ὑποστὰς ἐπικαιρίῳ καταβάλλει τραύματι, σκυλεύσας τε τὸν νεκρὸν καὶ τὸν περὶ τὸν τράχηλον στρεπτὸν ἀνελόμενος, ὃς ἐπιχώριός ἐστι Κελτοῖς κόσμος, αὐτὸς περιέθετο: καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦδε Τορκουᾶτος πρὸς τῶν πολιτῶν ἐπικληθεὶς [ὅπερ ἂν εἴη στρεπτοφόρος] μνημεῖον τῆς ἀριστείας τὴν ἐπίκλησιν ταύτην τοῖς ἀφ' ἑαυτοῦ καταλέλοιπε.
For Titus Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus see generally Andrew Drummond in OCD(4) s.v. [p.893]: consul 347, 344, 340 BCE. His famous duel with the Gaul, which gave rise to the family's cognomen, has been variously dated to 367, 361, 358 and 357 BCE. See also delta 1112.
The source of the present entry was taken by Adler to be John of Antioch; now his fr.93 Roberto. Compare e.g. Eutropius, Breviarium 2.5.
[1] Here (throughout) 'Celtic'.
[2] For his best-known descendant see J. Briscoe in OCD(4) s.v. Manlius Torquatus, Titus (consul 235 and 224 BCE).
Keywords: aetiology; biography; clothing; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; geography; historiography; history; military affairs
Translated by: David Whitehead on 27 April 2003@04:51:55.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference, set status) on 18 July 2004@16:05:59.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 19 July 2004@04:29:27.
David Whitehead (expanded primary note; more keywords) on 14 August 2011@10:24:38.
David Whitehead on 14 January 2014@07:36:10.
David Whitehead on 5 August 2014@08:23:47.
David Whitehead on 30 January 2015@05:14:59.


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