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Headword: *sa/bbaton
Adler number: sigma,6
Translated headword: sabbath
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] holiday, rest. But "second-first sabbath" [sc. is a phrase used] because it was the second [day] of the Passover and first [day] of the feast of unleavened cakes.[1] So if it is called sabbath, do not be surprised; for they call every holiday sabbath, and that is why they say "sabbath of sabbaths."[2]
The evangelist says "late in the sabbaths,"[3] not "in the sabbath," to indicate clearly the evening of that day; because they used to call the entire week sabbath. We too have the custom of saying, "he came late in the day," "late in time."[4] From this is made clear the lateness and earliness of the week that is ending. Each week is completed at the setting of the sun after the sabbath.[5]
Greek Original:
*sa/bbaton: a)rgi/a, kata/pausis. *sa/bbaton de\ deutero/prwton, e)peidh\ deu/teron me\n h)=n tou= *pa/sxa, prw=ton de\ tw=n *)azu/mwn. ei) ou)=n sa/bbaton ei)/rhtai, mh\ qauma/sh|s: sa/bbaton ga\r pa=san e(orth\n e)ka/loun. kai\ dia\ tou=to ei)/rhtai sa/bbaton sabba/twn. o)ye\ de\ sabba/twn, kai\ ou) sabba/tou le/gei o( *eu)aggelisth/s, dio/ti sa/bbata pa=san th\n e(bdoma/da e)/legon, i(/na th\n e(spe/ran th=s h(me/ras e)kei/nhs dhlw/sh|. kai\ ga\r e)/qos e)sti\n h(mi=n le/gein, o)ye\ th=s w(/ras h)=lqe: o)ye\ tou= kairou=. e)k tou/tou dhlou=tai to\ po/rrw kai\ bradu\ th=s peraiwqei/shs e(bdoma/dos. plhrou=tai de\ h( e(bdoma\s e(ka/sth tai=s meta\ to\ sa/bbaton h(li/ou dusmai=s.
cf. sigma 5, sigma 7.
[1] This is a guess to explain the phrase in (many manuscripts of) Luke 6:1, concerning which LSJ say "prob. corrupt ... (no expl. is satisfactory)".
[2] Isidore of Pelusium, Epistle 3.110 (PG 78.816bc).
[3] Matthew 28:1. But sa/bbata in the plural is often used of the single day (LSJ s.v.).
[4] cf. Demosthenes 21.84.
[5] In Byzantine reckoning, as still in the Orthodox Church, the day ends at sunset. Likewise, in Jewish reckoning, both in the time of Jesus and today, the day ends at sunset, based on the wording of Genesis 1:5. The week ends Saturday evening at sunset.
Keywords: Christianity; chronology; daily life; definition; food; religion; rhetoric
Translated by: Alex Gottesman on 13 May 2000@16:44:48.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (modified translation, augmented notes, added keyword) on 7 November 2002@17:23:14.
David Whitehead (added keywords) on 11 November 2002@04:09:35.
Catharine Roth (modified translation, added note) on 11 November 2002@12:05:36.
Catharine Roth (added cross-references) on 13 November 2002@17:42:18.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 3 May 2011@07:57:52.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics; raised status) on 19 June 2011@06:46:22.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 23 September 2014@01:00:21.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 23 September 2014@02:42:32.
Raphael Finkel (added note on Jewish end of day) on 28 September 2014@22:43:57.
Catharine Roth (expanded notes) on 29 September 2014@11:33:40.


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