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Headword: *sardanapa/lous
Adler number: sigma,122
Translated headword: Sardanapalos, Sardanapalus
Vetting Status: high
Kallisthenes in [book] 2 of Persian Histories[1] says that there were two men [named] Sardanapalos, one active and well-born but the other a fop. In Nineveh this is written on his memorial: "The son of Anakyndaraxes built Tarsus and Anchiale in one day. Eat, drink, copulate, for other things are not worth this." That is, a snap of the fingers: for he made and set up a statue in his remembrance which had its hands over its head, so that it was snapping with its fingers.[2] The same thing was written, too, in Anchiale, near Tarsus, which is now called Zephyrion.
And [there is] a proverb: "may you grow old more profound than Tithonos, more rich than Kinyras, and more fastidious than Sardanapalos, so that what the proverb says can be fulfilled in you: the old are twice children.[3] In reference to the very old. For Tithonos, by prayer, put off old age and changed into a cicada. Kinyras, descended from Pharnakes a king of [the] Cypriots, excelled in wealth. Sardanapalos, king of [the] Assyrians, living in luxury and intemperance, lost his own kingdom.[4]
This Sardanapalos was the son of Anakyndaraxes, a king of Nineveh, a Persian territory; he founded Tarsus and Anchiale in a single day. It is said that he prided himself shamefully not to be seen by his servants, unless by eunuchs and maidens. Ruined by wine, he was found dead indoors. It was written on his tomb in Assyrian letters: "Sardanapalos, son of Anakyndaraxes, etc.".[5]
Greek Original:
*sardanapa/lous e)n b# *persikw=n du/o fhsi\ gegone/nai *kallisqe/nhs, e(/na me\n drasth/rion kai\ gennai=on, a)/llon de\ malako/n. e)n *ni/nw| d' e)pi\ tou= mnh/matos au)tou= tou=t' e)pige/graptai: *)anakundara/cou pai=s *tarso/n te kai\ *)agxia/lhn e)/deimen h(me/rh| mih=|. e)/sqie, pi/ne, o)/xeue, w(s ta/ ge a)/lla ou)de\ tou/tou e)sti\n a)/cia. toute/sti tou= tw=n daktu/lwn a)pokroth/matos: to\ ga\r e)festw\s tw=| mnh/mati a)/galma u(pe\r th=s kefalh=s e)/xon ta\s xei=ras pepoi/htai, w(/st' a)\n a)polhkou=n toi=s daktu/lois. tauto\ kai\ e)n *)agxia/lw| th=| pro\s *tarsw=| e)pige/graptai, h(/tis nu=n kalei=tai *zefu/rion. kai\ paroimi/a: kataghra/sais *tiqwnou= baqu/teron, *kinu/rou plousiw/teros kai\ *sardanapa/lou trufhlo/teros, o(/pws to\ th=s paroimi/as e)pi\ soi\ plhrwqh=|, di\s pai=des oi( ge/rontes. e)pi\ tw=n u(pergh/rwn: o( ga\r *tiqwno\s kat' eu)xh\n to\ gh=ras a)poqe/menos ei)s te/ttiga mete/bale: *kinu/ras de/, a)po/gonos *farna/kou basile/ws *kupri/wn, plou/tw| diafe/rwn: *sardana/palos de/, *)assuri/wn basileu/s, o(\s e)p' a)kolasi/a| kai\ trufh=| diabiou\s kate/luse th\n i)di/an a)rxh/n. o( de\ *sardana/palos ou(=tos ui(o\s h)=n *)anakundara/cou, basile/ws *ni/nou, *persikh=s xw/ras: o(\s e)n mia=| h(me/ra| *tarso\n kai\ *)agxia/lhn e)/ktise. fasi\ de\ au)to\n ai)sxrw=s kallwpi/zesqai toi=s te oi)kei/ois mh\ o(ra=sqai, ei) mh\ eu)nou/xois kai\ ko/rais. pepurpolhme/nos de\ tw=| oi)/nw|, e)/ndon eu(reqei\s a)pe/qane. gra/fei de\ e)pi\ tw=| ta/fw| au)tou= *)assuri/ois gra/mmasi to/, *sardana/palos *)anakundara/cou pai=s, kai\ ta\ e(ch=s.
See also sigma 121. The first paragraph of the present entry is also in Photius: see sigma80 Theodoridis, with other references there.
[1] Kallisthenes of Olynthos FGrH 124 F34.
[2] cf. omicron 1037 (and alpha 2032).
[3] cf. kappa 497.
[4] For this paragraph of the entry cf. Appendix Proverbiorum 4.68; and for the material as far as 'twice children' see Julian, Epistle 82 (107.19-109.2 Hercher).
[5] From the scholia on Aristophanes, Birds 1021.
Keywords: art history; biography; children; comedy; daily life; economics; ethics; food; gender and sexuality; geography; historiography; history; mythology; proverbs; rhetoric; women; zoology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 18 October 2000@22:29:31.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added note and keyword) on 19 October 2000@02:35:21.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 27 August 2003@03:55:57.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 16 November 2005@08:27:55.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 4 December 2005@09:35:29.
Catharine Roth (added cross-references and keyword) on 31 July 2010@20:39:29.
Catharine Roth (another cross-reference) on 31 July 2010@20:41:11.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 22 December 2013@05:48:06.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 6 October 2014@01:34:36.
David Whitehead (coding) on 25 May 2016@09:14:46.


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