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Headword: Puthagoras
Adler number: pi,3120
Translated headword: Pythagoras
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Pythagoras] of Samos, but Tyrrhenian [Etruscan] by descent; son of Mnesarchus[1] an engraver of gems. When he was young he migrated with his father from Tyrrhenian territory to Samos. This man was taught first by Pherecydes of Syros[2] on Samos, then also on Samos by Hermodamas, who was a descendant of Kreophylos.[3] Then [he was taught by] Abaris the Hyperborean[4] and Zares the mage. After being educated by Egyptians and Chaldeans he came to Samos. Finding it subject to the tyranny of Polykrates[5] he moved to Kroton in Italy.[6] He established a school and had more than 600 disciples. He also had two brothers, the elder Eunomos, the middle one Tyrrhenos. He had a slave Zamolxis[7] to whom the Getae sacrifice as to Kronos. He married Theano[8] the daughter of Brotinos the Krotoniate. With her he had two children, Telauges[9] and Damon (or as some say Mnesarchus); according to some he also had a daughter Muia[10] by name; according to others also Arignote.[11] Pythagoras wrote only three books: On Education, On Statesmanship:[12] but the third attributed to Pythagoras is by Lysis of Tarentum, who became his disciple and fled to Thebes and taught Epaminondas.[13] But some attribute to him also the Golden verses. Pythagoras was the first to teach abstention from animal food and beans.[14]
Pythagoras died in this manner: as he was sitting with his friends in the house of Melon, it happened that the house was set on fire out of spite by one of those who had not been found worthy of admission. But some say that the Krotoniates themselves did this, suspecting an attempt at tyranny. Pythagoras was caught trying to escape: coming to a certain field full of beans, when he was trying to escape, he stopped there, saying that he would be captured rather than to tread on [them], and to be killed was better than to speak: and thus he was slain by the pursuers. In this way also most of his companions were murdered, about 40 of them.[15]
Greek Original:
Puthagoras, Samios, phusei de Turrênos, Mnêsarchou huios daktuliogluphou. neos de ôn sun tôi patri ek Turrênias ôikêsen eis Samon. houtos êkouse prôtos Pherekudou tou Suriou en Samôi, eita Hermodamantos en têi autêi Samôi, hos ên apogonos Kreophulou, eita Abaridos tou Huperboreou kai Zarêtos tou magou: paideutheis de kai par' Aiguptiois kai Chaldaiois êlthen eis Samon kai heurôn autên turannoumenên hupo Polukratous apêiren eis Krotôna tês Italias kai scholên sustêsamenos pleion ê ch# esche gnôrimous. êsan de autôi kai adelphoi duo, presbuteros men Eunomos, mesos de Turrênos. doulos de ên autôi Zamolxis, hôi Getai hôs Kronôi thuousi. gametên d' epoiêsato Theanô, tên Brotinou tou Krotôniatou thugatera: ex hês kai paides autôi egenonto duo, Têlaugês kai Damôn ê hôs tines Mnêsarchos. kata de tinas kai thugatêr, Muia onoma, kata de allous kai Arignôtê. sunegrapse de ho Puthagoras mona tria biblia, Paideutikon, Politikon: to de pheromenon triton hôs Puthagorou Lusidos esti tou Tarantinou, mathêtou autou genomenou kai phugontos eis Thêbas kai kathêgêsamenou Epaminônda. tines de anatitheasin autôi kai ta Chrusa epê. prôtos de ho Puthagoras empsuchôn apechesthai trophês paredôke kai kuamôn. eteleuta de ho Puthagoras touton ton tropon: sunedreuontos meta tôn sunêthôn en têi Mêlônos oikiai, toutou hupo tinos tôn mê paradochês axiôthentôn dia phthonon hupoprêsthênai tên oikian sunebê. tines de autous tous Krotôniatas touto praxai, turannidos epithesin eulaboumenous, ton dê Puthagoran katalêphthênai diexionta kai pros tini chôriôi genomenon plêrei kuamôn, hina diêrcheto, autothi estê, eipôn halônai mallon ê patêsai, anairethênai de kreitton ê lalêsai: kai hôde pros tôn diôkontôn aposphagênai. houtô de kai tous pleistous tôn hetairôn autou diaphtharênai, ontas pros tous m#.
Notes:
Philosopher, mathematician and religious leader, born mid-C6 BCE; see generally OCD4 s.v., and web addresses 1 (MacTutor History of Mathematics) and 2 (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy). In the Suda see also pi 3121, pi 3123, pi 3124.
[1] Mnesarchus: possibly mu 1160.
[2] Pherecydes: phi 214.
[3] Kreophylos: kappa 2376.
[4] Abaris: alpha 18.
[5] Polycrates: see under nu 240, tau 175.
[6] Kroton: kappa 2481, kappa 2482.
[7] Zamolxis: zeta 17, zeta 18.
[8] Theano: theta 83, theta 84.
[9] Telauges: tau 481.
[10] Muia: mu 1363.
[11] Arignote: alpha 3872.
[12] Pythagoras' third book was Phusikon, that is On Nature, according to Diogenes Laertius (8.1.6).
[13] Epaminondas: epsilon 1949.
[14] Thus far, the entry is derived from Diogenes Laertius 8.1-13; and cf. the scholia on Plato, Republic 600B.
[15] From Diogenes Laertius 8.39.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: biography; children; chronology; ethics; food; geography; mathematics; philosophy; politics; religion; trade and manufacture; women
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 4 April 2002@14:06:15.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 1 September 2002@05:52:40.
Catharine Roth (added keyword) on 29 September 2005@02:21:07.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 23 October 2013@07:44:57.
David Whitehead on 23 October 2013@07:45:25.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 16 July 2014@00:41:15.
David Whitehead on 10 August 2014@07:23:45.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link references) on 10 August 2014@11:05:51.
Catharine Roth on 10 August 2014@11:08:25.

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