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Headword: *)orgh/
Adler number: omicron,513
Translated headword: anger
Vetting Status: high
[Note] that a constant attribute of something [is] not a genus. Indeed pain is a constant attribute of anger, but not as a genus; for anger [is] not a pain; and the pain which comes with anger does not come because it is the anger, but anger is in addition to pain; for pain is prior to anger. For someone who is in pain is angry on the basis of having suffered injustice. But the genus is not such a thing as to exist before the species in time.[1]
Anger is a pain accompanied by the belief that [one] has been belittled; accordingly the pain which is produced on account of such a belief is anger.[2]
Greek Original:
*)orgh/: o(/ti ou) to\ parakolouqou=n tini ge/nos. th=| gou=n o)rgh=| parakolouqei= lu/ph, ou) mh\n w(s ge/nos: ou) ga\r h( o)rgh\ lu/ph, ou)de\ dia\ tou=to/ e)stin h( lu/ph h( meta\ th=s o)rgh=s ou)=sa, dio/ti h( o)rgh/ e)stin, a)ll' e)pi\ th=| lu/ph| h( o)rgh/: prote/ra ga\r h( lu/ph th=s o)rgh=s: luphqei\s ga/r tis w(s h)dikhme/nos o)rgi/zetai. ou) toiou=ton de\ to\ ge/nos w(s prou+pa/rxon xro/nw| tou= ei)/dous. o)rgh\ de/ e)sti lu/ph meq' u(polh/yews tou= w)ligwrh=sqai: h( toi/nun dia\ th\n toiau/thn u(po/lhyin genome/nh lu/ph o)rgh/ e)stin.
For this headword see also omicron 514.
[1] Taken (with slight variations) from Alexander of Aphrodisias, Commentaries on Aristotle's Topica 345.20-26. See also next note.
[2] Alexander 492.8-10. Although this is not Aristotle's canonical definition of anger (for which see Rhetoric 1378a30-31: 'a desire accompanied by pain to vengeance due to a conspicuous belittling'), it is Aristotelian in character. For Aristotle an emotion would not be such an emotion without the belief on the part of the agent that s/he is somehow being affected. This clearly shows that the agent must know, to some extent, that s/he has been despised or dishonored; it also shows that emotions have a cognitive origin, that cognition should not be dissociated from emotion, and that emotion affects judgment (cf. Rhetoric 1356a15-16 and 1378a19-24).
Keywords: definition; ethics; philosophy
Translated by: Marcelo Boeri on 8 July 2003@09:11:05.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added x-ref; cosmetics) on 8 July 2003@09:18:31.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaking) on 7 July 2013@06:40:29.
David Whitehead (coding) on 20 May 2016@03:44:05.
Catharine Roth (modified translation) on 1 February 2021@00:42:13.


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