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Headword: *katwka/ra
Adler number: kappa,1109
Translated headword: head downwards
Vetting Status: high
Attic [speakers] read it under one [word]. Aristophanes [writes]: "if it were to be hung from its feet head downwards".[1] Meaning kata\ kefalh=s ["down upon the head"]. To fall on [one's] head is said "head downwards" amongst Attic [speakers], not separately, but as one [word].
Pindar [writes]: "they have been bound head downwards with chains."[2]
Agathias [writes]: "slipping on the declivity and falling headlong into the sea, they were perishing."[3]
And Aristophanes [writes]: "it would graze after throwing me head downwards".[4] Speaking about the dung-beetle.[5]
Greek Original:
*katwka/ra: oi( *)attikoi\ u(f' e(\n a)naginw/skousin. *)aristofa/nhs: ei)/per e)k podw=n katwka/ra kre/maito. a)nti\ tou= kata\ kefalh=s. to\ e)pi\ kefalh\n pesei=n katwka/ra le/getai para\ *)attikoi=s, ou) dih|rhme/nws, a)ll' u(f' e(/n. *pi/ndaros: oi( me\n katwka/ra desmoi=si de/dentai. *)agaqi/as: oi( de\ e)k tou= pranou=s u(pofero/menoi kai\ e)s th\n qa/lattan katwka/ra e)mpi/ptontes a)pw/llunto. kai\ *)aristofa/nhs: katwka/ra r(i/yas me boukolh/setai. peri\ kanqa/rou le/gwn.
[1] Aristophanes, Acharnians 945, with scholion.
[2] Pindar fr.161.
[3] Agathias, Histories 42.5 (2.2 Niebuhr); cf. rho 217. During the Gothic War (535-554 CE) in 554 CE, an advance guard detached from the Frankish and Alamanni army of Leutharis (cf. alpha 2158 note) is routed by ambushing Romans at the Adriatic coastline near the city of Pisaurum (present-day Pesaro, Italy; Barrington Atlas map 42 grid D1); cf. Frendo (34).
[4] Aristophanes, Peace 153.
[5] cf. kappa 310.
J.D. Frendo, trans., Agathias: The Histories, (Berlin 1975)
Keywords: comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; food; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; poetry; zoology
Translated by: Mage Macchione on 24 March 2008@09:11:42.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 24 March 2008@09:22:17.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference) on 5 October 2010@01:49:08.
David Whitehead (tweaking) on 11 February 2013@06:37:21.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 11 July 2015@14:49:03.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 7 November 2023@01:34:31.
Ronald Allen (expanded n.3, added bibliography, added cross-reference, added keywords) on 7 November 2023@11:32:46.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation after discussion with Ron Allen) on 9 November 2023@12:03:36.


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