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Headword: *grh/nikos
Adler number: gamma,454
Translated headword: Grenikos, Granikos, Granicus, Graneikos
Vetting Status: high
A river [of that name].
Greek Original:
*grh/nikos: potamo/s.
First mentioned in Homer (Iliad 12.24), using the Gre- form of the name, as one of the rivers of the Troad, this river -- the present-day Biga Cayi (Harl 310) -- flows from Mt. Ida into the Sea of Marmara. See also Hesiod, Theogony 342.
The river later acquired celebrity as the site of Alexander the Great's first battle against the Persians, in 334 BCE. (Arrian, Anabasis 1.12-16; Diodorus Siculus 17.18-21; Plutarch Alexander 16). See in brief John Lazenby in OCD(4) p.626 (s.v. Granicus -- the orthodox modern version of the name, also under mu 1092).
The spelling 'Graneikos' is also occasionally used.
A detailed bibliography on the battle can be found in K.A. Harl, "Alexander's Cavalry Battle at the Granicus," in Polis and Polemos: Essays on Politics, War, and History in Ancient Greece in Honor of Donald Kagan (C. Hamilton, P. Krentz, eds. Claremont, CA, 1997) 303-326
For a recent archaeological survey in the region see Ch. Brian Rose, Billur Tekkök, Reyhan Körpe et al., "Granicus River Valley Survey Project, 2004-2005" Studia Troica 17 (2007) 65-150
Keywords: definition; epic; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; poetry
Translated by: John Hyland on 10 May 2000@19:12:16.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented bibliography; minor cosmetics) on 22 March 2001@06:35:57.
Nicholas Fincher (added note and headword) on 16 July 2003@23:43:41.
David Whitehead (augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 17 July 2003@03:07:13.
Mehmet Fatih Yavuz (added bibliography) on 25 September 2008@10:44:51.
David Whitehead on 1 August 2011@05:23:56.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 4 August 2014@02:54:00.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 15 April 2016@15:24:10.
David Whitehead (expansions to note; more keywords; coding and other cosmetics) on 16 April 2016@03:30:43.


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