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Headword: Ἦμαρ
Adler number: eta,283
Translated headword: day
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[ἦμαρ means the same as] ἡμέρα .[1]
The [noun] ἦμαρ is unaspirated; for aspirated [words] that are changed in form become unaspirated, as ἡδονή [and] ἦδος ["pleasure"],[2] ἅμα [and] ἄμυδις ["together"];[3] so ἡμέρα [and] ἦμαρ . But Herodian says that neuter [nouns] ending in -ος , if they begin with a syllable long by nature, are unaspirated; like αἶσχος ["shame"],[4] εὖχος ["boast, prayer"],[5] εὖρος ["breadth"], ἦθος ["custom"];[6] so also ἦμος ["when"] and ἦμαρ .[7]
Sophocles [writes]: "what does one day have more of delight than another, adding or taking away from death?" Interpretation: what does one day have, adding life and postponing death, to give a man delight?[8]
Greek Original:
Ἦμαρ: ἡμέρα. τὸ ἦμαρ ψιλοῦται: τὰ γὰρ ἀπὸ δασέων μετασχηματιζόμενα ψιλοῦται, οἷον ἡδονή, ἦδος: ἅμα, ἄμυδις: οὕτως ἡμέρα, ἦμαρ. ὁ δὲ Ἡρωδιανός φησιν, ὅτι τὰ εἰς ος οὐδέτερα, εἰ ἀπὸ φύσει μακρᾶς ἄρχονται, ψιλοῦνται: οἷον αἶσχος, εὖχος, εὖρος, ἦθος: οὕτω καὶ ἦμος καὶ ἦμαρ. Σοφοκλῆς: τί γὰρ παρ' ἦμαρ ἡμέρα τέρπειν ἔχει, προσθεῖσα κἀναθεῖσα τοῦγε κατθανεῖν; σχόλια: τὶ γὰρ ἡμέρα μία ἔχει, προσθεῖσα τὸ ζῆν καὶ ἀναβαλλομένη τοῦ θανεῖν, τέρπειν τὸν ἄνθρωπον.
Notes:
[1] Here and in other lexica, the archaic/epic/poetic form ἦμαρ is here glossed by the Attic/koine ἡμέρα (cf. eta 284). The Doric and Aeolic form is ἆμαρ . The declension is of an ancient type in which -r in the nominative/accusative alternates with *-nt- in the oblique cases; cf. ἧπαρ , ὕδωρ , σκῶρ . The aspiration of ἡμέρα in Attic is regarded as analogical with ἑσπέρα , according to Chantraine s.v.
[2] Herodian the grammarian (for whom see further below) says ἦδος is Aeolic, which would account for initial psilosis (although ἆδος would be expected in Aeolic): see eta 102.
[3] The adverb ἄμυδις is also Aeolic: see alpha 1667.
[4] alphaiota 352.
[5] epsilon 3829.
[6] eta 151.
[7] Eustathius I.154.38, citing Herodian's Symposium. Needless to say, there is no particular connection between the type of declension (neuter nouns in -os) and the aspiration (or lack thereof) of the root.
[8] Sophocles, Ajax 475-6 (web address 1), with scholion.
Reference:
P. Chantraine, Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque, ed. 2. Paris 2009.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; tragedy
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 25 July 2006@22:49:32.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 26 July 2006@03:50:41.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 16 December 2012@07:03:11.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 16 December 2012@07:04:19.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 19 December 2012@20:58:21.
David Whitehead (my typo) on 23 April 2016@05:53:33.
Catharine Roth (tweak) on 23 April 2016@23:48:11.
Catharine Roth (tweak) on 24 April 2016@11:38:43.
Catharine Roth (my error) on 25 April 2016@10:53:49.

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