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Headword: ὅς
Adler number: eta,100
Translated headword: quoth he
Vetting Status: high
The followers of Eratosthenes [said this was used] instead of ἔφη δ' ὅς ["he said"].[1] For this reason they put a rough breathing on the last [syllable]; for ὅς is used as an article.[2] And [is used] instead of ἔφη : "But we will wait, said Glaucon."[3] And ἦν δ' ἐγώ [is used] instead of ἔφην δὲ ἐγώ ["I said"]. Likewise Hermippus in Birth of Athena [writes] ἠσίν instead of φησίν : "Zeus says, 'I give many [women] their name.'"[4] And Aristarchus says that ἦ δ' ὅς [is used] instead of ἔφη δ' ὅς ["he said"], and ἦν δ' ἐγώ instead of ἔφην δ' ἐγώ . He said that was one of the archaic word-forms, and that Homer did not use it freely, nor make analogical forms from it: [he used it only] when it indicated the end of a speech, as in "He spoke, and [he nodded] with his dark eyebrows," and "He spoke, and [he shot an arrow] at Antinoos ..."[5] But [Aristarchus said] that those after Homer used it indiscriminately.[6]
Greek Original:
Ἦ δ' ὅς: οἱ μὲν περὶ Ἐρατοσθένην ἀντὶ τοῦ ἔφη δὲ ὅς. διὸ καὶ δασύνουσι τὴν ἐσχάτην: ἐντετάχθαι γὰρ ἄρθρον τὸ ὅς. καὶ ἦ, ἀντὶ τοῦ ἔφη: ἀλλὰ περιμενοῦμεν, ἦ δ' ὃς ὁ Γλαύκων. καὶ ἦν δ' ἐγώ, ἀντὶ τοῦ ἔφην δὲ ἐγώ. παρὸ δὴ καὶ Ἕρμιππος ἐν Ἀθηνᾶς γοναῖς ἠσὶν ἀντὶ τοῦ φησίν: ὁ Ζεὺς διδώνω πολλάς, φησί, τοὔνομα. Ἀρίσταρχος δὲ τὸ μὲν ἦ δ' ὃς ἀντὶ τοῦ ἔφη δὲ ὅς. τὸ δὲ ἦν δὲ ἐγώ, ἔφην δ' ἐγώ. τὸ δὲ ἦ τῶν ἀρχαίων ἔφη εἶναι λεξειδίων, Ὅμηρον δ' οὐ κατὰ πάντα χρῆσθαι αὐτῷ, οὐδὲ σχηματίζειν ἀπ' αὐτοῦ τὸ ἀνάλογον μέν, ὡς ὅταν λόγου τελευτὴν σημαίνῃ: ᾖ καὶ κυανέῃσιν ἐπ' ὀφρύσι. καί, ἦ, καὶ ἐπ' Ἀντινόῳ. τοὺς δὲ μεθ' Ὅμηρον ἀδιαφόρως αὐτὸ τάσσειν.
Same material in sol/finder/showlinks.cgi?kws=Photius">Photius (Lexicon eta51); similarly elsewhere. See also sol/sol-cgi-bin/search.cgi?login=guest&enlogin=guest&db=REAL&field=adlerhw_gr&searchstr=eta,101">eta 101.
[The SOL headword, mistakenly, gives only the second element of the phrase.]
[1] Eratosthenes [the great Alexandrian scholar: epsilon 2898] fr. 52 Strecker.
[2] The term ἄρθρον includes more than what we call the definite article; here it would be an anaphoric pronoun. As it differs from contemporary Attic usage, it shows that this is a fossilized archaic phrase.
[3] Plato, Republic 1.327C: again, the addition of a subject noun indicates the fossilization of this phrase.
[4] Hermippus [epsilon 3044] fr.1 Kock (2. K.-A.).
[5] Homer, Iliad 1.528 and Odyssey 22.8.
[6] The observant Aristarchus (alpha 3892) was right, of course. The only form used in Homer is the third person singular imperfect , which comes from *ηκτ (cf. Latin ai(i)o and ad-agium. The other forms, ἦν , ἠσί , ἠμί were formed from by analogy with forms of φημί . Cf. sol/sol-cgi-bin/search.cgi?login=guest&enlogin=guest&db=REAL&field=adlerhw_gr&searchstr=eta,1">eta 1, sol/sol-cgi-bin/search.cgi?login=guest&enlogin=guest&db=REAL&field=adlerhw_gr&searchstr=eta,101">eta 101, sol/sol-cgi-bin/search.cgi?login=guest&enlogin=guest&db=REAL&field=adlerhw_gr&searchstr=eta,322">eta 322, sol/sol-cgi-bin/search.cgi?login=guest&enlogin=guest&db=REAL&field=adlerhw_gr&searchstr=eta,371">eta 371, sol/sol-cgi-bin/search.cgi?login=guest&enlogin=guest&db=REAL&field=adlerhw_gr&searchstr=eta,582">eta 582.
P. Chantraine, Grammaire homérique (Paris 1973) I.291
Keywords: comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; religion; women
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 16 November 2003@19:15:23.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation at one point; augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 17 November 2003@03:17:42.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 11 March 2008@21:29:52.
David Whitehead (added primary note; tweaking) on 5 December 2012@09:35:48.
David Whitehead on 5 December 2012@09:36:54.
David Whitehead (another note) on 17 December 2012@03:08:43.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 30 January 2015@23:43:14.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticules) on 29 July 2018@02:13:02.


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