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Headword: Ἐπαγωγή
Adler number: epsilon,1923
Translated headword: induction; sequence-formation
Vetting Status: high
Induction is an argument that, by means of certain true things,[1]properly infers a truth similar to itself. There are two modes of induction: the one proceeding by contrariety and the one proceeding by reciprocal implication. Now the mode of induction proceeding by contrariety is the one out of which in every answer the contrary to what is asked will be implied. For example, my father is either different from or the same as your father. Thus if your father is different from my father, while being different from a father, he would not be a father. But if he is the same as my father, in being the same as my father, he would be my father. Again: if man is not an animal, he would be either a stone or a piece of wood. But he is not a stone nor a piece of wood, for he is animated and is able to move by himself. In fact, he is an animal. But if he is an animal, and both a dog and an ox are animals, man would be an animal as well, that is to say, he would be a dog and an ox. This is the mode of induction proceeding by contrariety and dispute, the refuting mode. The mode proceeding by reciprocal implication is double: the one which proves by inquiring the particular [conclusion] through the particular.[2] The first one is rhetorical, the second one dialectical. For instance, in the first one it is investigated whether this person killed somebody; the proof that he did is that he was opportunely found with stains of blood on him. And this mode of induction is rhetorical, since rhetoric also deals with particulars and is not concerned with universals. For it inquires not about the just itself but about the particular just acts. The other mode is dialectical, the one where the universal is proved before by means of particulars. For example, whether the soul is immortal, and whether living people come from dead people. This is proved in On the Soul by means of a certain universal [proposition], because the contraries come out of the contraries. And the universal itself is constructed out of certain particular existing things: to sleep comes from waking up and waking up from sleeping, the bigger from the smaller, and the smaller from the bigger.
From the Art of Tactics: ἐπαγωγή again[3] is when a rank is subordinated to another rank. For example, when one tetrarchy leads and the other tetrarchies are subordinated to it, or when the command of a body of mercenaries leads and the other commands of mercenaries follow close upon and, in general, when a body of troops pursues in march another body of troops. As a result the commanders of the succeeding body attach themselves to the back-markers of the body which is leading the way.
From the Topics:[4] induction and deduction (συλλογισμός ) are instruments of the dialectical arguments, according to which practice (or training) arises. And the mode of proof[5] by means of the universal is deductive, while the mode of proof by means of the things subordinated to the universal is inductive. The enthymeme is subordinated to deduction and the proof from example[6] is subordinated to induction. And the enthymeme is a rhetorical deduction, the proof from example a rhetorical induction. And induction is the progress by means of particulars up to the universals.[7] Therefore, those who maintain that induction is an argument which proceeds from the similar to the similar do not speak soundly. For the universal is not similar to what is subordinated to it. And induction is mostly for the sake of the mode of proof proper of the universal. But the argument proceeding from the similar to the similar would rather mean the proof from example, for an induction is the argument which proves and confirms the universal by means of particulars. In effect, the one who proves by means of universals that the best among everyone is he who knows because of capturing that the best pilot is the one who has knowledge and, likewise the best charioteer, general, and also the best physician, geometer, musician, carpenter, that person yields the mode of proof by means of induction due to the fact that the one who knows is the best one among everyone.[8]
Greek Original:
Ἐπαγωγή: ἐπαγωγή ἐστι λόγος διά τινων ἀληθῶν τὸ ὅμοιον αὑτῷ ἀληθὲς οἰκείως ἐπιφέρων. δύο δὲ τῆς ἐπαγωγῆς εἰσὶ τρόποι, ὅ τε κατ' ἐναντίωσιν καὶ ὁ ἐκ τῆς ἀκολουθίας. ὁ μὲν οὖν κατ' ἐναντίωσίν ἐστιν ἐξ οὗ τῷ ἐρωτωμένῳ περὶ πᾶσαν ἀπόκρισιν ἀκολουθήσει τὸ ἐναντίον: οἷον, ὁ ἐμὸς πατὴρ τῷ σῷ πατρὶ ἤτοι ἕτερός ἐστιν ἢ αὐτός. εἰ μὲν οὖν ἕτερός ἐστιν τοῦ ἐμοῦ πατρὸς ὁ σὸς πατήρ, πατρὸς ἕτερος ὢν οὐκ ἂν εἴη πατήρ: εἰ δὲ ὁ αὐτός ἐστι τῷ ἐμῷ πατρί, ὁ αὐτὸς ὢν τῷ ἐμῷ πατρὶ ὁ ἐμὸς ἂν εἴη πατήρ. καὶ πάλιν, εἰ μὴ ζῷόν ἐστιν ὁ ἄνθρωπος, λίθος ἂν εἴη ἢ ξύλον. οὐκ ἔστι δὲ λίθος ἢ ξύλον ἔμψυχος γάρ ἐστι καὶ ἐξ αὑτοῦ κινεῖται. ζῷον γάρ ἐστιν. εἰ δὲ ζῷόν ἐστι, ζῷον δὲ καὶ ὁ κύων καὶ ὁ βοῦς, εἴη ἂν καὶ ὁ ἄνθρωπος ζῷον, καὶ κύων καὶ βοῦς. καὶ οὗτος μὲν ὁ τῆς ἐπαγωγῆς κατ' ἐναντίωσιν καὶ μάχην τρόπος ὁ διελέγχων. ὁ δὲ τῆς ἀκολουθίας ἐστὶ διπλοῦς: ὁ μὲν τὸ ἐπὶ μέρους ζητούμενον διὰ τοῦ ἐπὶ μέρους ἀποδεικνύς. καὶ ἔστιν ὁ μὲν πρότερος ῥητορικός, ὁ δὲ δεύτερος διαλεκτικός. οἷον, ἐν τῷ προτέρῳ ζητεῖται, εἰ ὅδε ἀπέκτεινεν. ἀπόδειξις τὸ εὑρῆσθαι αὐτὸν κατ' ἐκεῖνον τὸν καιρὸν ᾑμαγμένον. ῥητορικὸς δέ ἐστι ὁ τρόπος τῆς ἐπαγωγῆς οὗτος: ἐπειδὴ καὶ ἡ ῥητορικὴ περὶ τὰ ἐπὶ μέρους, οὐ τὰ καθόλου τὴν πραγματείαν ἔχει. ζητεῖ γὰρ οὐ περὶ αὐτοῦ τοῦ δικαίου, ἀλλὰ τῶν ἐπὶ μέρους δικαίων. ὁ δὲ ἕτερός ἐστι διαλεκτικός, προαποδειχθέντος τοῦ καθόλου διὰ τῶν ἐπὶ μέρους. οἷον ζητεῖται, εἰ ἡ ψυχὴ ἀθάνατος, καὶ εἰ ἐκ τῶν τεθνεώτων οἱ ζῶντες: ὅπερ ἀποδείκνυται ἐν τῷ περὶ ψυχῆς διά τινος καθολικοῦ, ὅτι ἐκ τῶν ἐναντίων τὰ ἐναντία. καὶ αὐτὸ δὲ τὸ καθόλου κατασκευάζεται ἔκ τινων ὄντων ἐπὶ μέρους, ὅτι τὸ καθεύδειν ἐκ τοῦ ἐγρηγορέναι καὶ ἀνάπαλιν, καὶ τὸ μεῖζον ἐκ τοῦ μικροτέρου καὶ ἀνάπαλιν. ἐκ τῶν Τακτικῶν. Ἐπαγωγὴ πάλιν ἐστίν, ὅταν τάγμα τάγματι ὑποτάσσηται, οἷον τετραρχίας ἡγουμένης αἱ λοιπαὶ τετραρχίαι ὑποτάσσωνται, ἢ ξεναγίας ἡγουμένης αἱ λοιπαὶ ξεναγίαι ἐπακολουθοῦσι, καὶ καθόλου, ὅταν σύνταγμα συντάγματι ἐν πορείᾳ ἕπηται, ὥστε τοῖς τοῦ προηγουμένου συντάγματος οὐραγοῖς τοὺς τοῦ ἑξῆς συντάγματος ἡγεμόνας συνάπτειν. ἐκ τῶν Τοπικῶν. ὅτι ἡ ἐπαγωγὴ καὶ ὁ συλλογισμὸς ὄργανά εἰσι λόγων διαλεκτικῶν, καθ' οὓς τὸ γυμνάζεσθαι γίνεται. καὶ ἡ μὲν διὰ τοῦ καθόλου δεῖξις συλλογιστική, ἡ δὲ διὰ τῶν ὑπὸ τὸ καθόλου ἐπακτική. ὑποτάσσεται δὲ τῷ μὲν συλλογισμῷ τὸ ἐνθύμημα, τῇ δὲ ἐπαγωγῇ τὸ παράδειγμα. καὶ ἔστι τὸ μὲν ἐνθύμημα ῥητορικὸς συλλογισμός, τὸ δὲ παράδειγμα ῥητορικὴ ἐπαγωγή. ἐπαγωγὴ δέ ἐστιν ἡ διὰ τῶν καθ' ἕκαστα ἐπὶ τὰ καθόλου πρόοδος. διὸ οὐχ ὑγιῶς λέγουσιν οἱ λέγοντες τὴν ἐπαγωγὴν λόγον εἶναι ἀπὸ ὁμοίου ἐπὶ ὅμοιον: οὐ γὰρ ὅμοιον τὸ καθόλου τοῖς ὑπ' αὐτό: τῆς δὲ τοῦ καθόλου δείξεως χάριν ἡ ἐπαγωγὴ μάλιστα. ὁ δὲ ἀπὸ ὁμοίων ἐπὶ ὅμοιον λόγος μᾶλλον ἂν τὸ παράδειγμα σημαίνοι: ὁ γὰρ λόγος ὁ διὰ τῶν καθέκαστα τὸ καθόλου δεικνὺς καὶ πιστούμενος, οὗτός ἐστιν ἐπαγωγή. ὁ γὰρ δεικνὺς διὰ τῶν καθόλου ὅτι ἐν πᾶσιν ἄριστος ὁ ἐπιστάμενος διὰ τοῦ λαβεῖν, ὅτι κυβερνήτης ἄριστος ὁ ἐπιστάμενος, ὁμοίως καὶ ἡνίοχος, ὁμοίως καὶ στρατηγός, ὁμοίως καὶ ἰατρός, ὁμοίως καὶ γεωμέτρης, μουσικός, τέκτων, δι' ἐπαγωγῆς τοῦ ἐν πᾶσιν ἄριστον εἶναι τὸν ἐπιστάμενον τὴν δεῖξιν ποιεῖται.
For this headword see already epsilon 1921, epsilon 1922. The first part of the present tripartite entry reproduces (with slight variations) Diogenes Laertius 3.53-55.
[1] Presumably, "true premises".
[2] There is apparently something missing here. In DL the second point of this mode is the universal, which proceeds by confirming through particulars (Diogenes Laertius 3.54; for the Diogenes Laertius text, I follow Marcovich's edition).
[3] Still the headword, but now in a quite different (military) context. For such sequence-formation see e.g. Asclepiodotus 11.2 and 4.
[4] What follows reproduces, with slight changes, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Commentaries on Aristotle's Topica 85, 26-86, 19, where he is discussing Topica 15a11ff.
[5] For the use of δεῖξις in this sense cf. Aristotle, Rhetoric 1408a26ff; Prior Analytics 34a4ff.
[6] The Greek is παράδειγμα (see Aristotle, Rhetoric 1356b3ff.; 1402b14ff.; Prior Analytics 68b38ff.).
[7] This definition paraphrases Aristotle's definition in Topica 105a13-14. For the issue of method in Aristotle and the role of induction in it, see Irwin (1988), 26-36 (on induction see especially 32-33).
[8] See Aristotle, Topica 105a14-16.
T. Irwin, Aristotle's First Principles (Oxford: Clarendon Press) 1988
Keywords: definition; military affairs; philosophy; rhetoric; zoology
Translated by: Marcelo Boeri on 11 June 2000@10:58:14.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added keyword; cosmetics) on 24 December 2002@08:16:47.
Marcelo Boeri (Corrected the Greek in notes 5 nad 6.) on 8 May 2004@18:36:52.
David Whitehead (x-refs; tweaks and cosmetics) on 27 September 2012@05:17:13.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 19 December 2014@01:07:08.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 1 July 2017@23:29:33.
Catharine Roth (more coding) on 1 July 2017@23:33:35.


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