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Headword: Ἐξέστηκε
Adler number: epsilon,1660
Translated headword: has changed
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning he/she/it] is mad.[1]
"From the long-lasting pressure of his enemies he simply went out of his mind."[2]
Greek Original:
Ἐξέστηκε: μαίνεται. ὁ δὲ τῇ πολυχρονίῳ τριβῇ τῶν πολεμικῶν οὐδόλως ἐξέστη τῶν φρενῶν.
[1] Likewise in the Lexica Segueriana. The headword is perfect active, third person singular, of ἐξίστημι (cf. epsilon 1661). It must be quoted from somewhere -- apparently not from the quotation given here (which, anyway, the Lex.Seg. does not have): see next note.
[2] Polybius fr. 142 Büttner-Wobst, which has ἐξέστη rather than the headword, and specifies τῶν φρενῶν (out of his wits). Although Büttner-Wobst notes (532) that Toup attributed this fragment to Polybius, Schweighäuser was inclined to doubt that it was genuinely Polybian. Nonetheless, Büttner-Wobst gestures (ibid.) at Polybius 21.6-7 (web address 1) as a possible context for the fragment. Walbank (752, 97, 5) also raises the possibility that it belongs with Livy 37.11 (web address 2). If these associations are correct, the fragment serves as a coda to the death of the Rhodian admiral Pausistratos (cf. delta 635, epsilon 3377, pi 140, pi 3252, and de Souza 195) and the humiliating defeat of his fleet (190 BCE; at the bay of Panormos, northern Samos; Barrington Atlas map 61 grid D2) by the combined forces, serving the Seleucid King Antiochus III (the Great), of the exiled Rhodian admiral Polyxenidas and the pirate captain Nicander.
T. Büttner-Wobst, ed., Polybii Historiae, vol. IV, (Leipzig 1904)
F.W. Walbank, A Historical Commentary on Polybius, vol. III, (Oxford 1979)
P. de Souza, "Polybius on Naval Warfare," in T. Howe, E.E. Garvin, and G. Wrightson, eds., Greece, Macedon and Persia: Studies in Social, Political and Military History in Honour of Waldemar Heckel (Oxford 2015) 181-197
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; historiography; history; medicine; military affairs; politics
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 2 November 2005@00:52:56.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented n.2 and keywords) on 2 November 2005@03:12:13.
David Whitehead (expanded n.1; cosmetics) on 14 September 2012@06:00:20.
David Whitehead (further expansions to notes) on 15 January 2016@07:58:57.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 21 January 2016@23:32:18.
Ronald Allen (expanded n.2, added bibliography) on 8 September 2018@01:12:46.
Ronald Allen (further expanded n.2, expanded bibliography, added links, added cross-references, added keywords) on 8 September 2018@14:07:50.


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