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Headword: *)ake/raios
Adler number: alpha,836
Translated headword: uncorrupted, intact, fresh, unblemished
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] complete.[1]
"Succeeding [sc. those who were] uncorrupted and not expecting, they controlled the land."[2]
And elsewhere: "but the honey, inasmuch as [it was] impure and drawn not from thorns but from serpents, upset the bowels."[3]
Polybius [writes]: "for they, being unconquered, had fought intact in body and spirit against them."[4] Meaning confident.
"[He] wishing to use fresh troops against the attacks of the Celts."[5] Meaning from a state of intactness.
And elsewhere: "but not being able to persuade [him] afresh because of the overcautiousness and inaction of the aforementioned king, he was forced to offer 500 talents. And so Seleucus agreed to help [him]."[6]
And elsewhere: "those wishing to take away his unblemished reputation began to ridicule him."[7]
Greek Original:
*)ake/raios: o( o(lo/klhros. a)kerai/ois te kai\ ou) prosdexome/nois e)pigeno/menoi th=s gh=s e)kra/toun. kai\ au)=qis: to\ de\ me/li a(/te ou)k a)ke/raion ou)/te a)po\ a)ka/nqwn a)ll' a)po\ e(rpetw=n sumpeporisme/non a)ne/strefe ta\ spla/gxna. *polu/bios: tou\s me\n ga\r a)htth/tous o)/ntas e)c a)kerai/ou dihgwni/sqai pro\s sfa=s. a)nti\ tou= e)c eu)ko/lou. qe/lwn a)kerai/ois xrh/sasqai tai=s tw=n *keltw=n o(rmai=s. e)c o(loklh/rou. kai\ au)=qis: ou) duna/menos de\ pei/qein e)c a)kerai/ou dia\ th\n eu)la/beian kai\ a)pragi/an tou= proeirhme/nou basile/ws h)nagka/sqh f# ta/lanta protei=nai. kai\ dh\ sugkate/qeto bohqh/sein o( *se/leukos. kai\ au)=qis: ou) boulome/noi a)ke/raion a)penegkei=n th\n fh/mhn au)tou= h)/rcanto diasu/rein au)to/n.
These examples illustrate the meaning of the word as 'undamaged, unaffected by wounds to body or spirit, unpolluted by extraneous matter' or 'in a state not affected by previous experiences or failures'. The adjective is not derived from the root of mixing seen in kera/nnumi but either from the word for 'blemishes' (see alpha 833) or from a root of damaging seen in kerai+/zw and khrai/nw. Chantraine connects it with kerai+/zw, but indicates that it has been influenced by kera/nnumi. He finds the relationship between a)ke/raios and a)kh/ratos unclear. The LSJ entry may be consulted at web address 1.
[1] Same gloss (for which cf. under alpha 833), according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon.
[2] Quotation unidentifiable.
[3] Iamblichus fr. 16 Habrich.
[4] Polybius 15.11.11 (web address 2; cf. 6.24.9, 9.31.1,6: a common phrase for the mental state, particularly of fresh troops, that has not yet been affected by loss and wounds).
[5] Polybius 3.70.9 (web address 3).
[6] Polybius fr. 96 Büttner-Wobst, known only here (and epsilon 1520); cf. 23.4.11, 38.7.8. Büttner-Wobst notes (p. 527) that Ursinus (Fulvio Orsini, 1529-1600) deemed it Polybian, but that Schweighäuser doubted the attribution of this fragment to Polybius. Walbank suggests (p. 751) that a possible context for the fragment is Polybius 25.2.14 (web address 4). If this is correct, then the fragment details the moment in the war (179 BCE) of Eumenes (epsilon 3579) and Ariarathes (alpha 3869) against Pharnaces of Pontus (cf. OCD(4) s.v Pharnaces I; Pontus: Barrington Atlas map 87 grid B4) when the latter offered a bribe to Seleucus (IV Philopator, c.218-175 BCE (assassinated), cf. OCD(4) s.v. Seleucus(4)) so as to draw Seleucid troops into the conflict. Although Seleucus might have acquiesced, per the Suda, he apparently had second thoughts and did not break his existing agreement with the Romans (Walbank, p. 274; Gruen, p. 646).
[7] Quotation unidentifiable. (Perhaps, though not not necessarily, from Polybius again.)
Pierre Chantraine, Dictionnaire étymologique de la langue grecque ed. 2 (Paris 2009) 45, 496
T. Büttner-Wobst, ed., Polybii Historiae, vol. IV, (Leipzig 1904)
F.W. Walbank, A Historical Commentary on Polybius, vol. III, (Oxford 1979)
E.S. Gruen, The Hellenistic World and the Coming of Rome, (Berkeley, 1986)
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2,
Web address 3,
Web address 4
Keywords: biography; botany; definition; ethics; food; geography; historiography; history; medicine; military affairs; politics; zoology
Translated by: Robert Dyer on 17 December 2001@02:45:23.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (augmented note, added link) on 23 January 2002@15:59:10.
David Whitehead (added x-ref and keywords; cosmetics) on 22 December 2002@09:54:20.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 27 May 2007@08:52:41.
Catharine Roth (updated reference, cosmetics) on 24 August 2011@22:49:31.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks) on 23 January 2012@09:44:51.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 18 December 2014@22:32:36.
David Whitehead (my typo) on 19 December 2014@02:48:18.
Ronald Allen (added links, added to bibliography, augmented n.6) on 4 May 2018@23:38:42.
Ronald Allen (cosmeticule) on 9 May 2018@22:36:38.
Ronald Allen (bibliography format, cosmeticule; expanded n.6) on 11 June 2018@21:26:25.
Ronald Allen (added link, added bibliography, expanded n.6, added cross-references) on 11 June 2018@23:33:48.
Ronald Allen (my typo, added keywords) on 12 June 2018@22:39:27.


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