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Headword: *)ah/qesson
Adler number: alpha,653
Translated headword: they were unaccustomed (to)
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] they were unused [to]. Also [sc. attested is] a)hqe/ssousin ["they are unaccustomed (to)"], [meaning] they are unacquainted [with].[1]
The present tense a)hqe/ssw ["I am unaccustomed (to)"], [like] a)hdi/zomai ["I am disgusted"],[2] a)i/w ["I perceive"], a)/w ["I blow"], does not turn the alpha into an eta in the imperfect. [There are] a)h/qesson and a)hdizo/mhn, to prevent a succession of etas. But [in the case of] a)/w ["I breathe"] and a)i/w ["I hear"], [this happens] in order to avoid a confusion of meaning. For a)i/w [in the imperfect] would be like h)/i+e "he went";[3] and a)/w [in the imperfect would be like] h)=e "he was."[4]
Greek Original:
*)ah/qesson: a)h/qeis h)=san. kai\ *)ahqe/ssousin, a)sunh/qeis ei)si/n. *)ahqe/ssw o( e)nestw\s, a)hdi/zomai, a)i/+w, a)/w, ou) tre/pousi to\ a ei)s h kata\ to\n paratatiko/n. kai\ to\ me\n a)h/qesson kai\ a)hdizo/mhn, i(/na mh\ eu(reqh=| a)llepa/llhlon to\ h. to\ de\ a)/w, to\ pne/w, kai\ a)i/+w, to\ a)kou/w, i(/na mh\ sunempe/swsin e(te/rw| shmainome/nw|. to\ ga\r a)i/+w sune/petai tw=| h)/i+e, tw=| e)poreu/eto: to\ de\ a)/w, tw=| h)=e, tw=| u(ph=rxen.
After the initial glossing, the issue addressed here is to explain why some verbs beginning with alpha do not have eta when they are augmented in the imperfect.
[1] The primary headword -- a single word in the Greek -- occurs in Homer, Iliad 10.493 (web address 1), and these glosses are from the scholia there. The present indicative is unattested outside lexicography (though its participle occurs in later poetry: see LSJ s.v. at web address 2).
[2] cf. alpha 649.
[3] a)/i+on occurs as first person singular imperfect of a)i/w "breathe" (a variant of a)/hmi) in Homer, Iliad 15.252.
[4] a)/i+e, a)/i+on occur as imperfect of a)i/w "hear" in epic and lyric poetry.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; poetry
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 18 March 2001@16:27:03.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (modified translation, added notes) on 13 May 2002@21:20:59.
Catharine Roth (added link) on 13 May 2002@21:25:01.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 14 May 2002@02:59:38.
Catharine Roth (augmented notes) on 15 May 2002@01:40:34.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 16 August 2006@01:06:27.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 13 January 2012@04:32:56.
David Whitehead on 1 May 2015@04:38:04.


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