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Headword: Ἀδριανός
Adler number: alpha,527
Translated headword: Hadrianos, Hadrianus, Hadrian
Vetting Status: high
Emperor of the Romans.[1] He was of senatorial descent, his father having been the general Afer -- for thus he was [sur]named;[2] he was by nature fluent in each language;[3] and he left behind both some prose pieces and various poems in verse. For he used his ambition assiduously and in accordance with this he pursued everything else, even the pettiest things; for he used to sculpt and paint and say that he knew nothing that was not both for times of peace and times of war, both of an emperor and of a private citizen. And whereas this hurt people in no way, most terrible was his envy of all men who were outstanding in something, many of whom he deposed and many he killed. For he wanted to be pre-eminent of all men in all things and he hated those who were superior in something. And because of this he attempted to undermine Favorinus the Gaul[4] and Dionysius the Milesian in various ways but especially by exalting their rivals, although some were worthy of nothing and others of very little.[5] This man in a letter wrote a number of arrogant things, including an oath that he would neither do anything [outside of what was] beneficial to the public[6] nor kill any senator, and he wished destruction upon himself if he should depart in any way from these things;[7] nevertheless he went astray on many points.
This man was pleasant to meet and some favor graced him, as he used the languages of both the Latins and the Greeks most excellently; furthermore he was regarded as a great marvel for the gentleness of his ways, and as someone who had been zealous in the amassing of public funds.[8]
This man was by nature such a man that he was envious not only towards the living but towards those who were dead; at any rate he undermined Homer and instead of him introduced Antimachus, whose name many had never heard of before.[9] They found fault with these deeds of his as well as with his strictness and his curiosity and his meddlesomeness; but he ameliorated and compensated for these things with other care and forethought and munificence and cleverness; and in addition to this he began no war and stopped those that were already on, and deprived no one of money unjustly, and he bestowed a lot [of money] on many men, both public officials and private citizens.[10] He was extremely superstitious and made use of various oracles and incantations. His boyfriend was a certain Antinoos; he founded and colonized a city and named it for him.[11] And he said that a certain vision/apparation was Antinoos.[12]
This man came into Pannonia and crossed the Danube with his troops. And the barbarians who were there beat off this [attack].[13]
Greek Original:
Ἀδριανός: βασιλεὺς Ῥωμαίων. ἦν δὲ τὸ γένος βουλευτοῦ πατρὸς ἐστρατηγηκότος Ἄφρου: οὕτω γὰρ ὠνομάζετο: φύσιν δὲ φιλολόγος ἐν ἑκατέρᾳ τῇ γλώσσῃ: καί τινα πεζὰ καὶ ἐν ἔπεσι ποιήματα παντοδαπὰ κατέλιπε. φιλοτιμίᾳ τε γὰρ ἀπλήστως ἐχρῆτο καὶ κατὰ τοῦτο καὶ τἄλλα πάντα καὶ τὰ βραχύτατα ἐπετήδευε: καὶ γὰρ ἔπλασσε καὶ ἔγραφε καὶ οὐδὲν ὅ τι οὐ καὶ εἰρηνικὸν καὶ πολεμικὸν καὶ βασιλικὸν καὶ ἰδιωτικὸν εἰδέναι ἔλεγε. καὶ τοῦτο μὲν οὐδέν που τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ἔβλαπτεν: ὁ δὲ δὴ φθόνος αὐτῷ δεινότατος ἐς πάντας τούς τινι προέχοντας ὢν πολλοὺς μὲν καθεῖλε, συχνοὺς δὲ ἀπώλεσε. βουλόμενος γὰρ πάντων ἐν πᾶσι περιεῖναι ἐμίσει τοὺς ἔν τινι ὑπεραίροντας. κἀκ τούτου καὶ τὸν Φαβωρῖνον Γαλάτην τόν τε Διονύσιον τὸν Μιλήσιον τοὺς σοφιστὰς καταλύειν ἐπεχείρει τοῖς τε ἄλλοις καὶ μάλιστα τῷ τοὺς ἀνταγωνιστὰς σφῶν ἐξαίρειν, τοὺς μὲν μηδενὸς, τοὺς δὲ βραχυτάτου τινὸς ἀξίους ὄντας. οὗτος ἐν ἐπιστολῇ ἔγραψε τά τε ἄλλα μεγαλοφρονησάμενος, καὶ ἐπομόσας μήτε τι τῶν δημοσίῳ συμφερόντων ποιήσειν μήτε βουλευτήν τινα ἀποσφάξειν, καὶ ἐξώλειαν ἑαυτῷ, ἂν καὶ ὁτιοῦν αὐτῶν ἐκβῇ, προσεπαρασάμενος: ἀλλ' ὅμως διεβλήθη εἰς πολλά. οὗτος ἦν ἡδὺς μὲν ἐντυχεῖν καὶ ἐπήνθει τις αὐτῷ χάρις, τῇ τε Λατίνων καὶ Ἑλλήνων γλώττῃ ἄριστα χρώμενος: οὐ μὴν ἐπὶ πραότητι τρόπων ἄγαν ἐθαυμάζετο, περί τε τὴν τῶν δημοσίων χρημάτων ἐσπουδακὼς ἄθροισιν. οὗτος φύσει τοιοῦτος ἦν ὥστε μὴ μόνον τοῖς ζῶσιν ἀλλὰ καὶ τοῖς τετελευτηκόσι φθονεῖν: τὸν γοῦν Ὅμηρον καταλύων Ἀντίμαχον ἀντ' αὐτοῦ ἐσῆγεν, οὗ μηδὲ τὸ ὄνομα πολλοὶ πρότερον ἠπίσταντο. ᾐτιῶντο μὲν δὴ ταῦτά τε αὐτοῦ καὶ τὸ πάνυ ἀκριβὲς τό τε περίεργον καὶ πολύπραγμον: ἐθεράπευε δὲ αὐτὰ καὶ ἀνελάμβανε τῇ τε ἄλλῃ ἐπιμελείᾳ καὶ προνοίᾳ καὶ μεγαλοπρεπείᾳ καὶ δεξιότητι, καὶ τῷ μήτε τινὰ πόλεμον ταράξαι καὶ τοὺς ὄντας παῦσαι, μήτε τινὰ χρήματα ἀδίκως ἀφελέσθαι, καὶ πολλοῖς πολλὰ καὶ δήμοις καὶ ἰδιώταις χαρίσασθαι. ἦν δὲ περιεργότατος καὶ μαντείαις καὶ μαγγανείαις παντοδαπαῖς ἐχρῆτο. παιδικά τε αὐτοῦ ἐγεγόνει Ἀντίνοός τις: ἔκτισε δὲ πόλιν καὶ συνῴκισεν ἀπ' αὐτοῦ τε ὠνόμασε. καί τινα ὁρῶντα Ἀντίνοον λέγειν. οὗτος ἐς Παννονίαν ἀφίκετο καὶ τὸν Ἴστρον μετὰ τῶν ὅπλων διενήξατο. καὶ τοῦτο οἱ παρόντες βάρβαροι ἐξεπλάγησαν.
[1] Publius Aelius Hadrianus, ruled 117-138. See generally A.R. Birley in OCD(4) pp.641-2; DIR entry (Herbert Benario) at web address 1. The present entry, apart from one short extract from John of Antioch (see n.8 below), draws on the epitome and excerpts of Cassius Dio book 69, sections 2ff.
[2] Hadrian's father, Publius Aelius Hadrianus, surnamed Afer ("African"), died when Hadrian was 9; Hadrian then become the ward of his father's cousin, the emperor Trajan (tau 902).
[3] Greek and Latin.
[4] See generally phi 4. For Favorinus and Hadrian cf. Scriptores Historiae Augustae, Hadrian 15.11.
[5] Cassius Dio 69.3.1-4.
[6] The preposition ἔξω , in Dio, is omitted by the lexicographer, corrupting the sense. The phrase should read, as supplemented here, "anything outside of what was beneficial to the public".
[7] Cassius Dio 69.2.4.
[8] John of Antioch fr.113 FHG (4.581), now 195 Roberto.
[9] Antimachus of Colophon: alpha 2681.
[10] Cassius Dio 69.4.6-5.1.
[11] Antino-opolis, in Egypt.
[12] Cassius Dio 69.11.3-4; cf. pi 858. This last sentence is somewhat sketchy, but perhaps refers to Dio's account that Hadrian saw a star which he was convinced was the spirit of Antinoos.
[13] Cassius Dio 69.9.6.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; economics; epic; ethics; gender and sexuality; historiography; history; military affairs; poetry; religion; rhetoric
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 28 February 2002@21:11:17.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 1 May 2002@05:59:26.
David Whitehead (tweaks to tr and notes suggested by Prof Robert Kraft) on 12 March 2010@03:45:28.
David Whitehead (another x-ref; more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 11 January 2012@09:25:43.
Catharine Roth (added betacode) on 19 February 2012@11:20:54.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 19 January 2014@07:05:49.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 19 January 2014@18:37:11.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@03:13:21.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 January 2015@02:57:49.
Catharine Roth (added a link) on 29 January 2015@22:31:02.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 February 2015@00:13:51.


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