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Headword: Αὔγουστος
Adler number: alpha,4413
Translated headword: Augustus
Vetting Status: high
[Augustus] the Caesar, cousin of Julius Caesar;[1] from whom also the month of August is named. Things that are honorable and great and illustrious are called "august." For in his reign the Lord Jesus Christ, our God and Savior, assumed flesh from the holy Theotokos and ever-virgin Mary.
The Augusteion was named because on the fifth of the month of October the presidents of regions and priests of the cult of the emperor [sebastophoroi] used to hold a procession in the Augusteion, which is in the fishmarket, for the honor of Tiberius; they called this place thus from Augustus. But also Constantine the Great set up a monument to his mother in the courtyard of the laurel, from which he named the place Augusteion.[2]
Augusteion, which is called fishmarket: see also under Justinian.[3]
When Augustus Caesar died, Tiberius and Drusus took the lead in the mourning, completely avoiding touching the body: for this was not permitted to monarchs. But the Vestals[4] kept the will which he had made.
Augustus Caesar made a sacrifice and asked the Pythia[5] who would rule after him; and she said, "A Hebrew child, ruling over the immortal gods, bids me leave this house and to go again to the bard. For the rest, go away in silence from our altars." And going out from the prophetic shrine Augustus set up an altar on the Capitol, on which he inscribed in Roman letters: "This altar belongs to the first-born god."[6]
Greek Original:
Αὔγουστος ὁ Καῖσαρ, ἀνεψιὸς Ἰουλίου Καίσαρος: ἀφ' οὗ καὶ ὁ μὴν Αὔγουστος ἐπικέκληται. αὔγουστα δὲ λέγονται τὰ τίμια καὶ μεγάλα καὶ ἐπίσημα. ἐπ' αὐτοῦ γὰρ ὁ κύριος Ἰησοῦς Χριστὸς, ὁ θεὸς καὶ σωτὴρ ἡμῶν, τὴν σάρκα ἀνείληφεν ἐκ τῆς ἁγίας θεοτόκου καὶ ἀειπαρθένου Μαριάς. ὅτι Αὐγουστεῖον ἐκλήθη, διότι τῇ ε# τοῦ Ὀκτωβρίου μηνὸς οἱ ῥεγεωνάρχαι καὶ σεβαστοφόροι ἐχόρευον ἐν τῷ Αὐγουστείῳ, οἷον ἐν τῷ ὀψοπωλίῳ, εἰς τιμὴν Τιβερίου: τὸν δὲ τοιοῦτον τόπον οὕτως ἐκάλεσαν ἀπὸ τοῦ Αὔγουστος. ἔστησε δὲ καὶ ὁ μέγας Κωνσταντῖνος εἰς τὸ ἄσκεπον τῆς δάφνης στήλην τῆς ἑαυτοῦ μητρὸς, ἐξ ἧς ὠνόμασε τὸν τόπον Αὐγουστεῖον. Αὐγουστεῖον, ὅπερ λέγεται ὀψοπώλιον καὶ ζήτει ἐν τῷ Ἰουστινιανός. ὅτι Αὐγούστου Καίσαρος ἀποθανόντος, Τιβέριος καὶ Δροῦσος προηγοῦντο τοῦ πένθους τοῦ νεκροῦ παντελῶς μὴ ἁπτόμενοι: οὐ γὰρ ἐξὸν τοῖς μοναρχοῦσιν. τὰς δὲ διαθήκας αἱ Ἑστιάδες εἶχον, ἃς διέθετο. ὅτι Αὔγουστος Καῖσαρ θυσιάσας ἤρετο τὴν Πυθίαν, τίς μετ' αὐτὸν βασιλεύσει: καὶ εἶπε: παῖς Ἑβραῖος κέλεταί με, θεοῖς μακάρεσσιν ἀνάσσων, τόνδε δόμον προλιπεῖν καὶ ἀοιδὸν αὖθις ἱκέσθαι. λοιπὸν ἄπιθι σιγῶν ἐκ βωμῶν ἡμετέρων. καὶ ἐξελθὼν ἐκ τοῦ μαντείου ὁ Αὔγουστος ἔστησεν ἐν τῷ Καπιτωλίῳ βωμὸν, ἐν ᾧ ἐπέγραψε Ῥωμαϊκοῖς γράμμασιν: ὁ βωμὸς οὗτός ἐστι τοῦ πρωτογόνου θεοῦ.
De Imperatoribus Romanis article by Garrett Fagan at web address 1. See already alpha 4412, and again kappa 1197.
[1] More precisely, great-nephew of Julius Caesar; cf. Cedrenus (ed. Bekker) 300.22-24.
[2] cf. Preger, Scriptores originum Constantinopolitanarum 158.4-10 (= ps.-Codinus, Patria Constantinopoleos 2.15).
[3] iota 446.
[4] See generally epsilon 3213.
[5] See generally pi 3127.
[6] cf. John Malalas (ed. Dindorf) 231.15 - 232.5; Cedrenus (ed. Bekker) 320.17-22. Anthony Ossa-Richardson points out that the Suda's ἀοιδὸν "bard" does not seem to make sense. According to Adler, the 1549 Basel edition printed ἀίδην ("Hades"); Malalas has ἄϊδος ("[house] of Hades") and Cedrenus ὁδόν "road." The Chronicon of Simeon Logothetes also reads ὁδόν . If ἀοιδὸν was the transmitted text, it could have been emended to "Hades" or "road"; in any case, the oracle's message is metrically deficient.
M. A. Bonnetty, "Sur une prophétie de la Pythie de Delphes," Annales de philosophie chrétienne new series 14 (1837) 62-71 (available at Google books)
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: architecture; biography; Christianity; chronology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; historiography; history; meter and music; religion; women
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 6 August 2001@11:37:50.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 27 August 2002@09:03:07.
David Whitehead (explanatory addition to tr) on 10 June 2004@07:26:42.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 7 October 2005@07:35:56.
Catharine Roth (augmented notes) on 8 April 2008@15:54:27.
Catharine Roth (expanded note 6, with input from Anthony Ossa-Richardson) on 6 August 2009@16:43:24.
Catharine Roth (added bibliography, courtesy of A O-R) on 8 August 2009@17:13:54.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 29 April 2012@07:02:23.
David Whitehead on 29 April 2012@07:03:03.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 9 August 2013@00:04:20.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 27 November 2014@23:47:25.
Catharine Roth (expanded note) on 28 November 2014@01:27:49.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 26 January 2019@02:05:58.


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