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Headword: *)apolina/rios
Adler number: alpha,3397
Translated headword: Apollinarios, Apollinarius
Vetting Status: high
Of Laodicea in Syria. He lived in the days of Constantius and Julian the Apostate, and until the reign of Theodosius the Great; he was a contemporary of Basil and Gregory, the much-admired Cappadocians.[1] He was an acquaintance of them both, and of the sophist Libanius,[2] and of a number of others. He was not just a grammarian and a talented poet, but also (and far more) he was trained in philosophy; and he was a very able rhetor. He wrote in prose 30 volumes against the impious Porphyry,[3] and the whole of the Hebrew scriptures in epic verse. He wrote letters, and also many commentaries on the Scriptures. Philostorgius mentions Apollinarius in his history of his own times, and says: "In those days Apollinarius was flourishing in Laodicea in Syria, Basil in Caesarea in Cappadocia, and Gregory in Nazianzus (this place is a way-station in Cappadocia). These three men were then champions of consubstantiality against difference of substance, completely overshadowing all those who previously, or subsequently up to my own time, had stood up for that heresy; Athanasius could be judged a child by comparison with them.[4] For they were very advanced in the so-called 'external' education, and they had great proficiency in everything that contributes to the study and prompt recollection of Holy Scripture. This was especially true of Apollinarius, since he could understand Hebrew. Each of them was very well able to write in his own manner. Apollinarius far excelled in the style that suits commentaries; Basil was most brilliant in panegryic; but Gregory, compared with the two of them, had the soundest basis for written composition. Apollinarius was more powerful, Basil weightier, in speech. Such was their ability in speech and written composition; and in the same degree these men presented a character attractive to the public gaze. So all who saw them or heard them or received their writings were drawn into their communion, if they could easily be caught by any of their arguments." That is what Philostorgius the Arian wrote about them in passing.
Greek Original:
*)apolina/rios, *laodikeu\s th=s *suri/as, gegonw\s e)n h(me/rais *kwnstanti/ou kai\ *)ioulianou= tou= *paraba/tou kai\ e(/ws th=s a)rxh=s *qeodosi/ou tou= mega/lou, su/gxronos *basilei/ou kai\ *grhgori/ou, tw=n e)k *kappadoki/as qaumazome/nwn. e)ge/neto de\ kai\ gnw/rimos a)mfote/rwn kai\ *libani/ou tou= sofistou= kai\ a)/llwn tinw=n. ou(=tos ou) mo/non grammatiko\s kai\ ta\ e)s th\n poi/hsin decio/s, a)lla\ pollw=| plei/w kai\ e)s filosofi/an e)ch/skhto kai\ r(h/twr h)=n a)mfide/cios. ou(=tos e)/graye kataloga/dhn kata\ *porfuri/ou tou= dussebou=s to/mous l#, kai\ di' h(rw/wn e)pw=n pa=san th\n tw=n *(ebrai/wn grafh/n. e)/graye de\ e)pistola\s kai\ a)/lla polla\ ei)s th\n *grafh\n u(pomnh/mata. tou= de/ ge *)apolinari/ou kai\ *filosto/rgios mnh/- mhn pepoi/htai e)n th=| kat' au)to\n i(stori/a| kai/ fhsin: *)apolina/rios ga\r h)/kmaze kat' e)kei/nous tou\s xro/nous e)n th=| *laodikei/a| th=s *suri/as, kai\ *basi/leios e)n *kaisarei/a| th=s *kappadoki/as, kai\ *grhgo/rios e)n th=| *nazianzw=|: staqmo\s de\ ou(=tos o( to/pos e)sti\ th=s au)th=s *kappadoki/as. trei=s dh\ ou(=toi a)/ndres to/te tou= o(moousi/ou prou)ma/xoun kata\ tou= e(teroousi/ou, makrw=| pa/ntas parenegko/ntes tou\s pro/teron kai\ u(/steron a)/xris e)mou= th=s au)th=s ai(re/sews prosta/ntas, w(s pai=da par' au)toi=s kriqh=nai to\n *)aqana/sion. th=s te ga\r e)/cwqen kaloume/nhs paideu/sews e)piplei=ston ou(=toi proelhlu/qeisan kai\ tw=n i(erw=n grafw=n, o(po/sa ei)s a)na/gnwsin kai\ th\n pro/xeiron mnh/mhn e)te/lei, pollh\n ei)=xon th\n e)mpeiri/an, kai\ ma/lista/ ge au)tw=n o( *)apolina/rios. ou(=tos ga\r dh\ kai\ th=s *(ebrai/+dos diale/ktou e)pai/+ein oi(=o/s t' h)=n. kai\ mh\n kai\ suggra/fein e(/kastos au)tw=n e)s to\n e(autou= tro/pon h)=n i(kanw/tatos. tw=| me/n ge *)apolinari/w| to\ u(pomnhmatiko\n ei)=dos th=s le/cews makrw=| a)/rista ei)=xe, *basi/leios de\ panhguri/sai lampro/tatos h)=n, tw=| de/ ge *grhgori/w| kai\ par' a)mfote/rois e)cetazome/nw| mei/zw ba/sin ei)s suggrafh\n ei)=xen o( lo/gos: kai\ h)=n ei)pei=n *)apolinari/ou me\n a(dro/teros, *basilei/ou de\ staqerw/teros. tosau/ths de\ au)toi=s e)n tw=| le/gein kai\ gra/fein duna/mews ou)/shs, kai\ to\ h)=qos ou)de\n h(=tton oi( a)/ndres parei/xonto pro\s th\n tw=n pollw=n qe/an e)pagwgo/taton: w(/ste kai\ oi(=s w(rw=nto kai\ oi(=s e)/legon kai\ o(po/sa gra/fontes diedi/dosan, dia\ pa/ntwn h(/|roun ei)s th\n e(autw=n koinwni/an tou\s kaq' o(tiou=n au)tw=n eu)mare/steron a(li/skesqai duname/nous. tosau=ta peri\ au)tw=n w(s e)n paradromh=| *filosto/rgios o( *)areiano\s e)/grayen.
C4 AD. See generally RE Apollinarios; NP Apollinarios(3), and cf. [alpha 3398] Apollinarius. The Suda consistently spells his name with a single lambda (and the TLG Canon lists him under Apollinaris).
[1] [beta 150] Basil of Caesarea; [gamma 450] Gregory of Nazianzus.
[2] [lambda 486] Libanius.
[3] [pi 2098] Porphyry. The reference is to Porphyry's Against the Christians.
[4] 'Consubstantiality' (to\ o(moou/sion) was the formula adopted by the Council of Nicaea (AD 325) to define the relationship between the three persons of the Trinity and reaffirmed at the Council of Constantinople (AD 381); it was heresy from the point of view of the Suda's source, Philostorgius, who was an Arian (the same passage is quoted at beta 150 and gamma 450).The Suda surprisingly has no entry for Athanasius, the great defender of Nicene orthodoxy during the mid-fourth century. (Sources: Philostorgius, Historia Ecclesiastica 8.11a, pp. 111-113 Bidez-Winkelmann.)
P. Speck 'Sokrates scholastikos ├╝ber die beiden Apolinarioi' Philologus 141 (1997) 362-9
Keywords: biography; Christianity; chronology; geography; philosophy; poetry; religion; rhetoric
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 25 February 2000@16:11:48.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (cosmetics; added keywords) on 14 January 2002@19:49:56.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 14 January 2002@19:54:08.
Catharine Roth (supplied headword translation) on 5 March 2002@00:41:53.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords; cosmetics) on 21 August 2002@05:54:27.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 9 November 2004@19:39:48.
Catharine Roth (added page numbers to note) on 28 November 2004@23:30:48.
Catharine Roth (corrected my typo) on 28 November 2004@23:42:11.
Catharine Roth (added a keyword) on 3 October 2005@00:52:03.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 16 July 2009@18:53:09.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 3 April 2012@06:39:26.
Catharine Roth (expanded title) on 16 September 2015@23:12:53.
Catharine Roth (punctuation) on 16 September 2015@23:16:41.


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