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Headword: Ἀπολινάριος
Adler number: alpha,3397
Translated headword: Apollinarios, Apollinarius
Vetting Status: high
Of Laodicea in Syria. He lived in the days of Constantius and Julian the Apostate, and until the reign of Theodosius the Great; he was a contemporary of Basil and Gregory, the much-admired Cappadocians.[1] He was an acquaintance of them both, and of the sophist Libanius,[2] and of a number of others. He was not just a grammarian and a talented poet, but also (and far more) he was trained in philosophy; and he was a very able rhetor. He wrote in prose 30 volumes against the impious Porphyry,[3] and the whole of the Hebrew scriptures in epic verse. He wrote letters, and also many commentaries on the Scriptures. Philostorgius mentions Apollinarius in his history of his own times, and says: "In those days Apollinarius was flourishing in Laodicea in Syria, Basil in Caesarea in Cappadocia, and Gregory in Nazianzus (this place is a way-station in Cappadocia). These three men were then champions of consubstantiality against difference of substance, completely overshadowing all those who previously, or subsequently up to my own time, had stood up for that heresy; Athanasius could be judged a child by comparison with them.[4] For they were very advanced in the so-called 'external' education, and they had great proficiency in everything that contributes to the study and prompt recollection of Holy Scripture. This was especially true of Apollinarius, since he could understand Hebrew. Each of them was very well able to write in his own manner. Apollinarius far excelled in the style that suits commentaries; Basil was most brilliant in panegryic; but Gregory, compared with the two of them, had the soundest basis for written composition. Apollinarius was more powerful, Basil weightier, in speech. Such was their ability in speech and written composition; and in the same degree these men presented a character attractive to the public gaze. So all who saw them or heard them or received their writings were drawn into their communion, if they could easily be caught by any of their arguments." That is what Philostorgius the Arian wrote about them in passing.
Greek Original:
Ἀπολινάριος, Λαοδικεὺς τῆς Συρίας, γεγονὼς ἐν ἡμέραις Κωνσταντίου καὶ Ἰουλιανοῦ τοῦ Παραβάτου καὶ ἕως τῆς ἀρχῆς Θεοδοσίου τοῦ μεγάλου, σύγχρονος Βασιλείου καὶ Γρηγορίου, τῶν ἐκ Καππαδοκίας θαυμαζομένων. ἐγένετο δὲ καὶ γνώριμος ἀμφοτέρων καὶ Λιβανίου τοῦ σοφιστοῦ καὶ ἄλλων τινῶν. οὗτος οὐ μόνον γραμματικὸς καὶ τὰ ἐς τὴν ποίησιν δεξιός, ἀλλὰ πολλῷ πλείω καὶ ἐς φιλοσοφίαν ἐξήσκητο καὶ ῥήτωρ ἦν ἀμφιδέξιος. οὗτος ἔγραψε καταλογάδην κατὰ Πορφυρίου τοῦ δυσσεβοῦς τόμους λ#, καὶ δι' ἡρώων ἐπῶν πᾶσαν τὴν τῶν Ἑβραίων γραφήν. ἔγραψε δὲ ἐπιστολὰς καὶ ἄλλα πολλὰ εἰς τὴν Γραφὴν ὑπομνήματα. τοῦ δέ γε Ἀπολιναρίου καὶ Φιλοστόργιος μνή- μην πεποίηται ἐν τῇ κατ' αὐτὸν ἱστορίᾳ καί φησιν: Ἀπολινάριος γὰρ ἤκμαζε κατ' ἐκείνους τοὺς χρόνους ἐν τῇ Λαοδικείᾳ τῆς Συρίας, καὶ Βασίλειος ἐν Καισαρείᾳ τῆς Καππαδοκίας, καὶ Γρηγόριος ἐν τῇ Ναζιανζῷ: σταθμὸς δὲ οὗτος ὁ τόπος ἐστὶ τῆς αὐτῆς Καππαδοκίας. τρεῖς δὴ οὗτοι ἄνδρες τότε τοῦ ὁμοουσίου προὐμάχουν κατὰ τοῦ ἑτεροουσίου, μακρῷ πάντας παρενεγκόντες τοὺς πρότερον καὶ ὕστερον ἄχρις ἐμοῦ τῆς αὐτῆς αἱρέσεως προστάντας, ὡς παῖδα παρ' αὐτοῖς κριθῆναι τὸν Ἀθανάσιον. τῆς τε γὰρ ἔξωθεν καλουμένης παιδεύσεως ἐπιπλεῖστον οὗτοι προεληλύθεισαν καὶ τῶν ἱερῶν γραφῶν, ὁπόσα εἰς ἀνάγνωσιν καὶ τὴν πρόχειρον μνήμην ἐτέλει, πολλὴν εἶχον τὴν ἐμπειρίαν, καὶ μάλιστά γε αὐτῶν ὁ Ἀπολινάριος. οὗτος γὰρ δὴ καὶ τῆς Ἑβραί̈δος διαλέκτου ἐπαί̈ειν οἷός τ' ἦν. καὶ μὴν καὶ συγγράφειν ἕκαστος αὐτῶν ἐς τὸν ἑαυτοῦ τρόπον ἦν ἱκανώτατος. τῷ μέν γε Ἀπολιναρίῳ τὸ ὑπομνηματικὸν εἶδος τῆς λέξεως μακρῷ ἄριστα εἶχε, Βασίλειος δὲ πανηγυρίσαι λαμπρότατος ἦν, τῷ δέ γε Γρηγορίῳ καὶ παρ' ἀμφοτέροις ἐξεταζομένῳ μείζω βάσιν εἰς συγγραφὴν εἶχεν ὁ λόγος: καὶ ἦν εἰπεῖν Ἀπολιναρίου μὲν ἁδρότερος, Βασιλείου δὲ σταθερώτερος. τοσαύτης δὲ αὐτοῖς ἐν τῷ λέγειν καὶ γράφειν δυνάμεως οὔσης, καὶ τὸ ἦθος οὐδὲν ἧττον οἱ ἄνδρες παρείχοντο πρὸς τὴν τῶν πολλῶν θέαν ἐπαγωγότατον: ὥστε καὶ οἷς ὡρῶντο καὶ οἷς ἔλεγον καὶ ὁπόσα γράφοντες διεδίδοσαν, διὰ πάντων ᾕρουν εἰς τὴν ἑαυτῶν κοινωνίαν τοὺς καθ' ὁτιοῦν αὐτῶν εὐμαρέστερον ἁλίσκεσθαι δυναμένους. τοσαῦτα περὶ αὐτῶν ὡς ἐν παραδρομῇ Φιλοστόργιος ὁ Ἀρειανὸς ἔγραψεν.
C4 AD. See generally RE Apollinarios; NP Apollinarios(3), and cf. [alpha 3398] Apollinarius. The Suda consistently spells his name with a single lambda (and the TLG Canon lists him under Apollinaris).
[1] [beta 150] Basil of Caesarea; [gamma 450] Gregory of Nazianzus.
[2] [lambda 486] Libanius.
[3] [pi 2098] Porphyry. The reference is to Porphyry's Against the Christians.
[4] 'Consubstantiality' (τὸ ὁμοούσιον ) was the formula adopted by the Council of Nicaea (AD 325) to define the relationship between the three persons of the Trinity and reaffirmed at the Council of Constantinople (AD 381); it was heresy from the point of view of the Suda's source, Philostorgius, who was an Arian (the same passage is quoted at beta 150 and gamma 450).The Suda surprisingly has no entry for Athanasius, the great defender of Nicene orthodoxy during the mid-fourth century. (Sources: Philostorgius, Historia Ecclesiastica 8.11a, pp. 111-113 Bidez-Winkelmann.)
P. Speck 'Sokrates scholastikos über die beiden Apolinarioi' Philologus 141 (1997) 362-9
Keywords: biography; Christianity; chronology; geography; philosophy; poetry; religion; rhetoric
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 25 February 2000@16:11:48.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (cosmetics; added keywords) on 14 January 2002@19:49:56.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 14 January 2002@19:54:08.
Catharine Roth (supplied headword translation) on 5 March 2002@00:41:53.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords; cosmetics) on 21 August 2002@05:54:27.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 9 November 2004@19:39:48.
Catharine Roth (added page numbers to note) on 28 November 2004@23:30:48.
Catharine Roth (corrected my typo) on 28 November 2004@23:42:11.
Catharine Roth (added a keyword) on 3 October 2005@00:52:03.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 16 July 2009@18:53:09.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 3 April 2012@06:39:26.
Catharine Roth (expanded title) on 16 September 2015@23:12:53.
Catharine Roth (punctuation) on 16 September 2015@23:16:41.


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