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Headword: Ἀντισθένης
Adler number: alpha,2723
Translated headword: Antisthenes
Vetting Status: high
An Athenian, a Socratic philosopher from [among] the orators, who was first called a Peripatetic, then became a Cynic; he was the son of a father who had the same name, but a mother who was Thracian by race. This man wrote ten volumes altogether: the first [was] on magic;[1] it told the story of a certain mage Zoroaster, who discovered wisdom; but some have attributed this to Aristotle, others to Rhodon.[2] So this man also began the philosophy of Cynicism,[3] which was so called because he taught in the Cynosarges gymnasium. And he became the mentor of Diogenes the Cynic and the rest.
When Antisthenes was suffering from a long and intractable illness Diogenes gave him a dagger, saying, "If you should require a friend's services." Thus that man thought of death as nothing painful, such that illness became altogether a luxury.[4]
[Altogether] meaning totally.[5]
Greek Original:
Ἀντισθένης, Ἀθηναῖος, ἀπὸ ῥητόρων φιλόσοφος Σωκρατικός, ὅστις Περιπατητικὸς ἐκλήθη πρῶτον, εἶτα ἐκύνισεν: υἱὸς δὲ ὢν ὁμωνύμου πατρὸς, μητρὸς δὲ τὸ γένος Θρᾴσσης. οὗτος συνέγραψε τόμους δέκα: πρῶτον μαγικόν: ἀφηγεῖται δὲ περὶ Ζωροάστρου τινὸς μάγου, εὑρόντος τὴν σοφίαν: τοῦτο δέ τινες Ἀριστοτέλει, οἱ δὲ Ῥόδωνι ἀνατιθέασιν. οὗτος οὖν καὶ τῆς Κυνικῆς κατήρξατο φιλοσοφίας, ἥτις οὕτως ἐκλήθη διὰ τὸ ἐν Κυνοσάργει τῷ γυμνασίῳ διδάξαι αὐτόν. καὶ Διογένους δὲ καθηγητὴς γέγονε τοῦ Κυνὸς καὶ τῶν λοιπῶν. ὅτι ἀρρωστοῦντι Ἀντισθένει μακρὰν καὶ δυσανάκλητον ἀρρωστίαν ὁ Διογένης ξιφίδιον ἐπιδέδωκεν εἰπών: εἰ φίλου χρῄζεις ὑπουργίας. οὕτως ᾤετο ἐκεῖνος οὐδὲν ἀλγεινὸν τὸν θάνατον, ὥστε γίνεσθαι τὴν ἀρρωστίαν τρυφὴν αὐτόχρημα. ἀντὶ τοῦ παντελῶς ὅμοιον.
Some of this information is taken from the biography of A. in Diogenes Laertius (6.1, 13, 15), with an additional paragraph -- see n.2 below -- from Julian, Oration 6 (181b Hertlein.
On Antisthenes (mid C5 to mid C4 BCE) see generally OCD(4) p.109, s.v. 'Antisthenes(1)'.
[1] Or "Magian lore."
[2] Or perhaps (despite rho 209), "to [Antisthenes the] Rhodian" (mentioned in Diog.Laert. 6.19); so Bernhardy. For Zoroaster, see alpha 4257, zeta 159, zeta 160, zeta 161, mu 28.
[3] Cross-referenced at kappa 2709.
[4] Julian (see above); cf. epsiloniota 340.
[5] cf. alpha 4537.
Keywords: athletics; biography; definition; ethics; geography; medicine; philosophy; religion; rhetoric; women
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 1 June 2001@14:38:05.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 3 June 2001@12:25:39.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 21 February 2002@15:17:44.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 15 August 2002@05:00:47.
Catharine Roth (added cross-references) on 16 October 2002@17:40:36.
Catharine Roth (added another cross-reference) on 16 October 2002@20:48:13.
David Whitehead (added x-ref and keyword; restorative cosmetics) on 17 October 2002@03:38:00.
David Whitehead (modified translation at one point) on 15 June 2004@04:29:57.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 19 March 2012@05:26:52.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@07:10:53.
David Whitehead on 25 July 2015@08:28:12.
Catharine Roth (minor tweak) on 28 August 2015@12:13:18.
Catharine Roth (added a note) on 30 September 2015@18:32:28.


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