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Headword: Antiochos
Adler number: alpha,2693
Translated headword: Antiochus, Antiochos
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Antiochus], a king.[1] This man seemed at first to be an attempter of great things and daring and able to follow through on his what had been begun, but as he moved along in life he proved much inferior to himself and the general expectation.[2]
For[3] from the sons of Alexander of Macedon came a sinful root, this Epiphanes, son of Seleukos Philopator.[4] He was a terrible man and greedy and he committed many ravagings and lootings and acquired a lot of money and from intemperance and mad passion he fell to mimicking himself in the sight of everyone and doted madly after women. He seized Egypt with a heavy mob and chariots and elephants and a great army and took control of it. Turning back after losing all sense he took Jerusalem and slaughtered 180000. So he dared to go even into the sanctuary and set up an altar and an abominable idol of desolation and defiled the temple with unclean sacrifices and called it the shrine to Olympian Zeus.[5] And thus enthroned on high and with his armed soldiers stationed around him in a circle he commanded the mercenaries to drag in each and every Hebrew and give him pork meat and force him to sacrifice to idols; unless they would eat the forbidden meat, they tortured and killed them. So many were seized, and a certain Eleazar, [one] of the foremost scholars, already advanced in age, would not eat the abominable meat and was flogged and slain with his seven children and their mother Solomonis. (Concerning these matters the Theologian too makes mention in his What the Maccabees did.) The king, struck rather mad and driven out of his senses, took all the sacred vessels and plundered the whole city and butchered its flocks and made slaughter and he returned boasting to Antioch. And after two years of fighting the Persians, he dispatched a commander to levy tribute from the city of Jerusalem. [The commander] neared the city and spoke words of peace to Jerusalem and went in -- and dealt the city a huge blow: he tore down the walls and set the whole city alight, and defiled the temple and killed many and went away with prisoners, having left a commander behind to torture the Jews. A certain Matthias, a priest,[6] had five sons, of which Judas Maccabeus was one; he was full of zeal and struck out against the commander and killed him and tore up the altars of the Greeks. So Antiochus came against him with great force. As the war went on, Eleazar, a brother of Judas, showed courage when he was crushed by the elephant. For he sneaked up on the elephant and struck it in the belly with his sword, hoping to take the king above him. So Antiochos marched out against the Persians and turned out the loser and lost his life foully.
This same Antiochos, when the Jewish people were in revolt against the regular tribute, again enslaved them: he pillaged the offerings of the temple and tracked them all down and found a holy book which held [---] in his hands, and a deep beard-offering;[7] there, of course, a gold-wrought lampstand stood. He smeared these things with pig blood and left them in the temple; and having imposed on the Jewish inhabitants a fine of many talents for extracting the tribute he returned to Syria.
Greek Original:
Antiochos, basileus: houtos edokei kata tas archas gegonenai megalepêbolos kai tolmêros kai tou protethentos exergastikos, probainôn de kata tên hêlikian ephanê polu katadeesteros hautou kai tês tôn ektos prosdokias. ek gar tôn paidôn tou Alexandrou tou Makedonos exêlthe rhiza hamartôlos, houtos ho Epiphanês, huios Seleukou tou Philopatoros, hos huparchôn deinos anêr kai pleonektês kai pollas harpagas kai leêlasias poiêsas sunêxe chrêmata polla kai ek pollês akolasias kai oistrêlasias eis mimous heauton katheis en opsei pantôn tais gunaixin epemaineto. kai katalabôn tên Aigupton en ochlôi barei kai harmasi kai elephasi kai stolôi megalôi tautês ekratêsen. hupostrepsas de meta aponoias heile kai tên Hierousalêm dorualôton kai katesphaxe muriadas iê#. katatolmêsas oun kai eis to hagiasma eiselthôn kai stêsas bômon kai eidôlon bdelugma erêmôseôs kai ton naon mianas di' akathartôn thusiôn hieron Dios Olumpiou prosêgoreusen. houtô te eph' hupsêlou kathisas kai tôn stratiôtôn autou kuklôi parestêkotôn enoplôn ekeleuse tois doruphorois hena hekaston Hebraion epispasasthai kai kreôn choireiôn kai eidôlothutôn anankazein apogeuesthai: ei de mê theloien miarophagêsai, anaireisthai trochisthentas. pollôn oun sunarpasthentôn, kai Eleazar tis tôn prôtôn grammateôn, êdê probebêkôs tên hêlikian, mê miarophagêsas, mastigôtheis anaireitai sun hepta paisi meta mêtros Solomônidos. peri hôn kai ho Theologos en tôi, ti dai hoi Makkabaioi, mnêmoneuei. ekplageis de ho turannos kai mallon ekmaneis kai ta hiera skeuê panta labôn kai pasan tên polin laphuragôgêsas kai ta ktênê kreourgêsas kai phonoktonian poiêsas kai megalorêmonêsas anechôrêsen eis Antiocheian. kai meta duo etê kata Persôn epistrateusas apesteilen archonta phorologêsai tas poleis Hierousalêm. hos paragenomenos kai lalêsas eirênikous logous pros tên Hierousalêm kai eiselthôn epataxen autên plêgêi megalêi, kai kathelôn ta teichê pasan autên eneprêse, kai to hieron mianas kai pollous anelôn kai aichmalôteusas apêiei, archonta katalipôn eis to basanizein tous Ioudaious. Matthias de tis hiereus, echôn huious pente, aph' hôn Ioudas ho Makkabaios etunchane, zêlou plêstheis kai hormêsas kata tou archontos aneilen auton kai skaptei tous tôn Hellênôn bômous. eperchetai oun autôi Antiochos meta pollês dunameôs. hôs de epeteinen ho polemos, Eleazar adelphos Iouda aristeusas suntribetai hupo tou elephantos. hupeisêlthe gar ton elephanta kai xiphei tên gastera autou etupsen elpisas epanô autou ton turannon pheresthai. ekstrateusas oun Antiochos kata Persôn hupestrepsen hêttêmenos kai kakôs ton bion apallattei. hoti ho autos Antiochos to tôn Ioudaiôn ethnos stasiasan pros ton sunêthê phoron authis katedoulôse: sulêsas te ta tou hierou anathêmata kai diereunêsas hapanta heuren agalmation biblion en tais chersi katechon pôgôna te epipheromenon bathun: hôi dê kai luchnidion pareistêkei diachruson. tauta choireiois haimasin analabôn en tôi hierôi katelipe: kai pollois talantois zêmiôsas pros hupagôgên phorou tous enoikountas Ioudaious epi tas Surias epanêlthen.
Notes:
[1] Antiochus III ("the Great"), c.242-187. See generally OCD(4) p.105.
[2] Polybius 15.37; abridged at mu 356.
[3] This long central paragraph of the entry consists of excerpts from the Chronicon of George the Monk; they concern a later homonym, Antiochus IV Epiphanes (c.215-162), on whom see generally OCD(4) p.105.
[4] Incorrect: younger brother of SP. (They were both sons of Antiochus III.)
[5] cf. alpha 132, beta 202, iota 194. For a modern discussion, in historical context, see Graham Shipley, The Greek World After Alexander (London 2000) 307-312.
[6] mu 282.
[7] There is evidently textual corruption here.
Keywords: biography; children; Christianity; economics; ethics; food; gender and sexuality; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; religion; women; zoology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 23 July 2000@01:55:33.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 14 August 2002@10:03:54.
Catharine Roth (typo identified by Andrew Smith) on 10 October 2004@18:58:59.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 16 November 2005@07:59:26.
David Whitehead (typo in n.3) on 9 August 2006@04:39:24.
Catharine Roth (added keyword and italics) on 13 August 2006@22:56:41.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; x-ref) on 23 January 2007@02:59:54.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 18 March 2012@10:43:56.
David Whitehead (another x-ref; another keyword) on 23 January 2014@08:21:56.
David Whitehead (updated 2 refs) on 30 July 2014@07:06:56.

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