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Headword: Ἀννίβας
Adler number: alpha,2452
Translated headword: Hannibal
Vetting Status: high
The Carthaginian was so called.
"For the Carthaginians chose as general Hasdrubal, son-in-law of [Hamilcar] Barca.[1] And he chose as lieutenant-general Hannibal, the man who became famous not much later for military commands. Hannibal was both son of Barca and [thus] brother of [Hasdrubal's] wife; Hasdrubal had him with him in Iberia, and he was young and battle-ready and acceptable to the army. And Hannibal led many [campaigns] in Iberia, since he was trustworthy in negotiations and behaved like a young man when force was required."[2] "Hannibal was war-loving by nature and never endured idleness."[3] "But later he took to unaccustomed luxury and had a mistress, wild man that he was; and straightaway, little by little, everything was turned over to him."[4]
Polybius says, "Hannibal was young, but filled with warlike passion, successful in the fray, and motivated from the start by his hatred of the Romans."[5]
"It was made clear to Hannibal, general of the Carthaginians, by [the oracle] of Ammon, that he would die and be buried in the land of Libya. And he hoped to stamp out the Roman empire and to end it in Libya. When Flaminius, the general of the Romans, was eager to take him alive, he went as suppliant to Prusias and when he was thrust away by Prusias, he leapt up onto his horse, and since his sword was unsheathed, he wounded his finger. And he had not gone too many stades farther when a fever from his wound and the end of his life overtook him. The region where death overtook him the Nicomedians call 'Libyssa.' And an oracle came to the Athenians from Dodona that they should colonise 'Sicily'. And 'Sicily' is a small ridge not far from Athens. But those who did not understand what was said were led into foreign expeditions and into war against the Syracusans."[6]
"It is a remarkable and great indication that this man was by nature a leader and very different from other men for his statesman-like manner that for seventeen years he remained in the field, passed through a good many barbarian lands, and used a good many foreign men as helpmates in his ambitious and incredible endeavors; he was never deserted willingly by one of the men once they had joined up with him and given themselves into his hands."[7] Which even now ?is a civilized way to behave?.[8]
"In contriving to make the Carthaginians see the magnitude of his victory over the Romans and the plight of their opponents, Hannibal sent into Libya three Attic medimni full of golden rings, which he had stripped as spoils from men of equestrian and senatorial rank."[9]
"Certain Carthaginians who were sent out by Hannibal to spy fell in with the Romans. Though they were angry with him, Publius[10] did them no harm but told them to inspect the camp, take dinner, and to go back safe to report to Hannibal the way things were with the army of the Romans."[11]
Greek Original:
Ἀννίβας ὁ Καρχηδόνιος οὕτως ἐκαλεῖτο. οἱ γὰρ Καρχηδόνιοι στρατηγὸν ἀπέφηναν Ἀσδρούβαν, τὸν τοῦ Βάρκα κηδεστήν. ὁ δὲ Ἀννίβαν τὸν οὐ πολὺ ὕστερον ἀοίδιμον ἐπὶ στρατηγίαις, παῖδά τε ὄντα τοῦ Βάρκα καὶ τῆς γυναικός οἱ γινόμενον ἀδελφὸν ἔχων ἐν Ἰβηρίᾳ νέον ὄντα καὶ φιλοπόλεμον καὶ ἀρέσκοντα τῷ στρατῷ ὑποστράτηγον ἀπέφηνε, καὶ τῆς τε Ἰβηρίας τὰ πολλὰ προσηγάγετο, πιθανὸς ὢν ὁμιλῆσαι, ἔς τε τὰ βίας δεόμενα τῷ μειρακίῳ χρώμενος. φύσει δὲ φιλοπόλεμος ἦν ὁ Ἀννίβας, καὶ οὔ ποτε ἀργίαν ἔφερεν. ὕστερον δὲ ἐπὶ τρυφῆς ἦν οὐ συνήθους, ἐρωμένην τε εἶχεν ἄγριος ἀνήρ: καὶ εὐθὺς αὐτῷ κατ' ὀλίγον ἐτρέπετο πάντα. φησὶ δὲ Πολύβιος, ὡς Ἀννίβας νέος μὲν ἦν, πλήρης δὲ πολεμικῆς ὁρμῆς, ἐπιτυχὴς δὲ ἐν ταῖς ἐπιβολαῖς, πάλαι δὲ παρωρμημένος πρὸς τὴν κατὰ τῶν Ῥωμαίων ἔχθραν. ὅτι Ἀννίβᾳ τῷ Καρχηδονίων στρατηγῷ ἐδηλώθη παρὰ Ἄμμωνος, ὡς ἀποθανὼν γῇ καλυφθήσεται Λιβύσσῃ. καὶ ὁ μὲν ἤλπισεν ἀρχὴν τῶν Ῥωμαίων καθαιρήσειν καὶ ἐν Λιβύῃ τελευτήσειν. Φλαμινίου δὲ τοῦ Ῥωμαίων στρατηγοῦ σπουδὴν ποιουμένου λαβεῖν αὐτὸν ζῶντα, ἀφίκετο παρὰ Προυσίαν ἱκέτης καὶ ἀπωσθεὶς ἀπ' αὐτοῦ ἀνεπήδα τε ἐπὶ τὸν ἵππον καὶ γυμνωθέντος τοῦ ξίφους τιτρώσκεται τὸν δάκτυλον. προελθόντι δὲ οὐ στάδια πολλὰ πυρετὸς ἀπὸ τοῦ τραύματος καὶ ἡ τελευτὴ τοῦ βίου συνέβη. τὸ δὲ χωρίον, ἔνθα συνέβη ἀποθανεῖν, ἐκάλουν οἱ Νικομηδεῖς Λίβυσσαν. καὶ Ἀθηναίοις δὲ μάντευμα ἦλθεν ἐκ Δωδώνης, Σικελίαν οἰκίζειν. καὶ οὐ πόρρω τῆσδε λόφος ἐστὶν ἡ Σικελία οὐ μέγας. οἱ δὲ οὐ συμφρονήσαντες τὸ εἰρημένον ἔς τε ὑπερορίους στρατιὰς προήχθησαν καὶ ἐς τὸν Συρακουσίων πόλεμον. ὅτι θαυμαστόν ἐστι καὶ μέγιστον σημεῖον γεγονέναι τῇ φύσει τὸν ἄνδρα τοῦτον ἡγεμονικὸν καὶ πολύ τι διαφέροντα τῶν ἄλλων πρὸς τὸν πραγματικὸν τρόπον: ιζ# γὰρ ἔτη μείνας ἐν τοῖς ὑπαίθροις πλεῖστά τε ἔθνη καὶ βάρβαρα διεξελθὼν καὶ πλείστοις ἀνδράσιν ἀλλοφύλοις χρησάμενος συνεργοῖς πρὸς ἀπηλπισμένας καὶ παραδόξους ἐπιβολὰς, ὑπ' οὐδενὸς ἑκουσίως ἐγκατελείφθη τῶν ἅπαξ αὐτῷ κοινωνησάντων καὶ δόντων ἑαυτοὺς εἰς χεῖρας. ὅπερ καὶ τὰ νῦν ἐμπολιτεύεται. ὅτι τὸ μέγεθος τῆς τοῦ Ἀννίβου νίκης τῆς πρὸς Ῥωμαίους καὶ τῆς τῶν ἐναντίων συμφορᾶς ὑπ' ὄψιν ἀγαγεῖν τοῖς Καρχηδονίοις μηχανώμενος, τρεῖς μεδίμνους Ἀττικοὺς πλήρεις χρυσῶν δακτυλίων εἰς τὴν Λιβύην ἀπέπεμψεν, οὓς ἄρα τοὺς ἱππικοὺς καὶ βουλευτικοὺς ἄνδρας σκυλεύσας ἀνῄρητο. ὅτι ἄνδρες τινὲς Καρχηδονίων ἐπὶ κατασκοπῇ τῶν ἐναντίων σταλέντες ὑπὸ Ἀννίβου τοῖς Ῥωμαίοις περιπίπτουσιν. οὓς ἀχθέντας ὡς αὑτὸν ὁ Πόπλιος κακὸν μὲν οὐδὲν εἰργάσατο, περινοστῆσαι δὲ κελεύει τὸ στρατόπεδον καὶ δεῖπνον ἑλομένους ἀποχωρεῖν σώους, ἀπαγγελοῦντας Ἀννίβᾳ τὰ περὶ τὴν στρατιὰν ὡς ἔχει Ῥωμαίοις.
Born 247 BCE. See generally OCD(4) s.v. (pp.644-5).
[1] See generally OCD(4) pp.644, under 'Hamilcar(2)', and 646-7, under 'Hasdrubal(1)'.
[2] Appian, Iberica 6 (for this whole paragraph so far); cf. alpha 4134.
[3] Appian, Annibaica 17.
[4] Appian, Annibaica 43.
[5] Polybius 3.15.6.
[6] Pausanias 8.11.11-12 (web address 1 below).
[7] Polybius 23.13.1-2.
[8] This addendum might also come from Polybius (so Schweighauser); alternatively it is an "editorial" comment by the lexicographer himself.
[9] John of Antioch fr. 120 Roberto; cf. Eutropius, Breviarium 3.11.
[10] P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus.
[11] John of Antioch fr. 128; again at sigma 577.
J. Seibert, Hannibal (1993)
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; economics; ethics; gender and sexuality; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; politics; religion; women
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 1 June 2001@00:32:06.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (supplemented and modified translation; augmented notes; added bibliography; cosmetics) on 4 June 2001@04:05:32.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords) on 12 August 2002@09:22:12.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 16 November 2005@07:40:41.
Catharine Roth (added italics) on 22 December 2005@19:11:11.
Catharine Roth (cross-reference) on 11 January 2011@23:43:43.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics, new note 8) on 12 January 2011@23:13:55.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 14 March 2012@06:45:59.
David Whitehead (augmented notes) on 22 August 2013@07:29:56.
David Whitehead (updated 2 refs) on 30 July 2014@06:30:12.
David Whitehead (updated another ref) on 29 January 2015@03:35:35.
David Whitehead (another note; tweaks and cosmetics) on 18 July 2015@03:31:10.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 25 July 2015@19:48:49.


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