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Headword: Abaton
Adler number: alpha,23
Translated headword: inaccessible
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning something] sacred, unapproachable, desolate;[1] also an 'inaccessible' road, [meaning] impassable.
Greek Original:
Abaton: hieron, aprositon, erêmon: kai hodos abatos, hê aporeutos.
The headword is the neuter singular form of this adjective, which, as a substantive, can be used for the adyton of a temple or shrine.
[1] Up to this point the entry = Synagoge alpha5, and Photius, Lexicon alpha31 Theodoridis; cf. Hesychius alpha91 (where Latte confidently asserts that the headword is quoted from Euripides, Bacchae 10).
Keywords: architecture; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; religion; tragedy
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 23 August 1998@16:21:29.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified headword and translation, set keywords and status) on 20 January 2001@11:38:48.
David Whitehead (modified translation; added a keyword; typo and other cosmetics) on 13 April 2004@09:31:34.
Catharine Roth (augmented note, added keyword, raised status) on 3 October 2007@19:18:41.
Catharine Roth (deleted keyword) on 3 October 2007@19:29:24.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 4 October 2007@03:40:05.
William Hutton (Modifed and updated notes.) on 11 November 2007@07:16:09.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 19 December 2011@06:14:37.
David Whitehead (expanded n.1; another keyword) on 1 February 2012@03:58:10.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 August 2013@00:52:27.
David Whitehead on 16 August 2013@06:33:19.
William Hutton (typo) on 21 August 2013@10:06:07.

Headword: Abussos
Adler number: alpha,105
Translated headword: abyss, pit
Vetting Status: high
There was a shrine of Persephone, which guarded much gold from all ages[1] [and] kept it inviolate.[2] In this [shrine] there was a certain pit of gold, not visible to the general public [and] hidden[3] under ground.
Greek Original:
Abussos: hieron ên tês Persephonês polun chruson ek pantos tou chronou pephulagmenon athikton echon. en hôi chrusos tis abussos, aoratos tois pollois kata gês kekrummenos.
For this headword see already alpha 104.
The pi 3232 entry on Pyrrhus (the C4/3 BCE king of Epirus: see generally OCD(4) p.1245) comprises a lengthy anecdotal extract on him from the Roman Antiquities of Dionysius of Halicarnassus (20.8-9); the present entry paraphrases part of it (20.9.2). The date is 276-275, when Pyrrhus was campaigning for a second time in southern Italy and Sicily.
[1] Literally, "of all time".
[2] Or "untouched".
[3] Or simply "situated" (pi 3232).
Keywords: architecture; biography; economics; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; religion
Translated by: Elizabeth Vandiver on 1 October 1999@23:13:45.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 9 February 2001@08:44:13.
David Whitehead (augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 19 December 2003@08:01:03.
David Whitehead (another x-ref; more keywords) on 22 December 2011@03:48:15.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 29 July 2014@12:17:45.
William Hutton (tweaked translation on the basis of a suggestion of Brady Kiesling.) on 27 December 2016@10:22:00.

Headword: Agathês Tuchês neôs
Adler number: alpha,111
Translated headword: temple of Good Fortune
Vetting Status: high
The interpretation [is] not unclear.
Greek Original:
Agathês Tuchês neôs: ouk adêlon to sêmainomenon.
According to the equivalent entry in Harpokration -- which prompted the present one, without having the present gloss (also in Photius, Lexicon alpha69 Theodoridis) -- it was mentioned by Lycurgus (fr. 23 Conomis) "and others"; probably, therefore, it was in Athens.
Keywords: architecture; religion; rhetoric
Translated by: Elizabeth Vandiver on 1 October 1999@23:26:17.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword) on 29 September 2000@05:41:58.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords; cosmetics) on 19 December 2003@08:09:02.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 19 July 2011@09:52:45.
David Whitehead (expanded primary note) on 16 August 2013@07:39:00.

Headword: Ankôn
Adler number: alpha,249
Translated headword: elbow
Vetting Status: high
"In the royal palace of Gelimer was a building full of darkness, which the Carthaginians used to call [the] Elbow; therein were thrown all toward whom the tyrant was ill-disposed. There, in the time of Belisarius, happened to be confined many traders from the east about to be destroyed by the tyrant at that time, whom the guard of the prison released."[1]
"And he placed the siege-engines in the way that seemed most timely, and he hit both the wall-angles [angkones] and the trenches from both sides."[2]
Also [sc. attested is] a)gkw=nes, a certain part of the house.[3]
Another meaning of a)gkw=nes is everything that, in a dream, fixes the well-ordered aspect of life.[4]
*)agkw=nes [are] also the prominences of rivers, the ones at the banks.
"It was not possible to sail through to the stream ahead because of the size of the descending prominences which it was necessary for those dragging the ships to bend round."[5]
Also [sc. attested is] a)gkw=nes, [in the sense of] the heights of the mountains. "Some of you seek out the [western] heights, and some the eastern, going toward the evil exit of the man."[6]
And [there is] a proverbial expression: wiping one's nose with the elbow.[7]
Bion the philosopher said: "my father was a freed slave, wiping his nose with his elbow;" it indicated clearly the saltfish-importer.[8]
See another proverbial expression, 'sweet bend' [in a river, etc.].[9]
Greek Original:
Ankôn: en têi basilikêi aulêi tou Gelimeros oikêma ên skotous anapleôn, ho dê Ankôna ekaloun hoi Karchêdonioi: entha eneballonto hapantes hois an chalepainoi ho turannos. entautha epi Belisariou polloi katheirgmenoi etunchanon tôn heôiôn emporôn, hous mellontas kat' ekeino kairou anaireisthai hupo tou turannou ho phulax tou desmôtêriou apeluse. kai dietithei tas mêchanas hêi malista edokei kairion, ankônas te kai taphrous ebaleto hekaterôthen. kai Ankônes, meros ti tês oikias. ankônes de kai panta ta prospêssomena kat' onar to kosmion tou biou sêmainei. Ankônes kai hai tôn potamôn exochai, hai para tais ochthais. ou dunaton ên pros antion ton rhoun anaplein dia to megethos tôn prospiptontôn ankônôn, hous edei kamptein parelkontas tas naus. kai Ankônas, tas akras tôn orôn. hoi de speirousin ankônas, hoi d' antêlious zêteit' iontes t' andros exodon kakên. kai paroimia: tôi ankôni apomussomenos. Biôn phêsin ho philosophos: emou ho patêr men ên apeleutheros, tôi ankôni apomussomenos: diedêlou de ton tarichemporon. zêtei kai allên paroimian, to glukus ankôn.
[1] An abridgement of Procopius, History of the Wars of Justinian 3.20.4-7 (web address 1), the prison guard at Gelimer's Carthage palace releases the captive traders as Belisarius's (cf. beta 233, generally) fleet makes its approach (September 533 CE); cf. Kaldellis (184). On Gelimer, king of the Vandals and Alans (530-534), see PLRE IIIa s.v. Gelimer.
[2] From an unidentifiable military narrative. (For the headword in this sense see LSJ s.v., II.)
[3] For this gloss, cf. iota 552.
[4] Artemidorus 1.74; cf. omicron 349.
[5] Quotation unidentifiable.
[6] Sophocles, Ajax 805-6 (web address 2); the first adjective is garbled here.
[7] cf. Mantissa Proverbiorum 3.31 and the quotation which follows here.
[8] Diogenes Laertius 4.46.
[9] gamma 316.
A. Kaldellis, ed. and H.B. Dewing, trans., Prokopios: The Wars of Justinian, (Indianapolis 2014)
J.R. Martindale, The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire, vol. IIIa, (Cambridge, 1992)
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: architecture; biography; chronology; daily life; dreams; economics; ethics; food; geography; historiography; history; imagery; military affairs; philosophy; proverbs; science and technology; trade and manufacture; tragedy
Translated by: Nathan Greenberg ✝ on 24 November 1998@13:57:02.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (supplied headword; added notes; augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 29 April 2002@04:02:29.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 October 2005@08:29:24.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 20 November 2005@10:40:36.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 20 February 2011@08:38:56.
Catharine Roth (tweaks and cosmetics) on 21 February 2011@01:08:42.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 4 January 2012@05:46:10.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 30 December 2014@00:14:19.
Ronald Allen (expanded n.1, added bibliography, added cross-reference, added link) on 20 November 2023@13:55:59.

Headword: Agnôneios
Adler number: alpha,285
Translated headword: Hagnoneian, Hagnonian
Vetting Status: high
The son of [H]agnon.[1]
Also [sc. attested is] [H]agnonides.[2]
Greek Original:
Agnôneios: ho tou Agnônos pais. kai Agnônidês.
[1] An entry seemingly generated by Thucydides 5.11.1, which records the demolition in 422 BCE of the "Hagnonian buildings" of Amphipolis, i.e. those buildings associated with its Athenian founder Hagnon, father of Theramenes (theta 342, etc.). The scholiast to the passage glosses the adjective, there in the neuter plural, as "those of (H)agnon". Here it is nominative singular; but even so it cannot have been an authentic way to refer to Hagnon's son.
[2] Athenian political figure of the third quarter of the C4 BCE, implicated in the "Harpalos Affair" (see generally alpha 4000).
Keywords: architecture; biography; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; historiography; history; politics
Translated by: Roger Travis on 23 October 2000@13:31:07.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added notes and keyword; cosmetics) on 29 April 2002@06:29:13.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 20 November 2005@09:58:45.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 5 January 2012@07:31:30.

Headword: Agreiphna
Adler number: alpha,351
Translated headword: rake, harrow
Vetting Status: high
A farm tool, with which they collect hay. "Alkimos [dedicated] his toothless rake and a share of a noise-loving shovel bereft of its olivewood handle."[1]
Greek Original:
Agreiphna: geôrgikon ergaleion, di' hou sunagousi ton chorton. alkimos agreiphnan kenodontida kai philodoupou pharsos hama steleou chêron elaïneou.
Feminine noun, also found in the form a)gri/fh (alpha 365).
[1] An approximation of Greek Anthology 6.297.1-2 (Phanias), a dedication of agricultural implements to Athena, again (in part) at phi 116; cf. Gow and Page, vol. I (162-163) and vol. II (470-471); cf. further extracts from this epigram at alpha 3945 and kappa 2794. The opening word is a proper name. Here the translation adopts Toup's emendation (cf. Gow and Page, vol. I, 162) and reads a)/mas [cf. alpha 1574] for the Suda's a(/ma; cf. phi 116. The verb is supplied in translation here from line 6.
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. I, (Cambridge 1965)
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. II, (Cambridge 1965)
Keywords: agriculture; botany; daily life; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; poetry; religion; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 28 August 1998@16:34:30.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 29 April 2002@08:27:51.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 2 October 2005@11:08:14.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; added primary note and more keywords; cosmetics) on 6 January 2012@08:20:25.
David Whitehead on 6 January 2012@08:21:15.
David Whitehead on 8 January 2012@09:17:43.
Ronald Allen (betacode typo n.1, expanded and rearranged n.1, added bibliography, added cross-references, added keywords) on 22 December 2018@23:31:13.
Ronald Allen (my punctuation error n.1) on 25 December 2018@12:59:02.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 8 January 2021@01:13:00.

Headword: Anchialê
Adler number: alpha,396
Translated headword: Anchiale, Anchialeia
Vetting Status: high
A city, which Sardanapalus, the king of the Assyrians, built in one day. He built Tarsus the same way.
Greek Original:
Anchialê: polis, hên ektisen en miai hêmerai Sardanapalos ho tôn Assuriôn basileus. homoiôs ektise kai tên Tarson ho autos.
From sigma 122; and for Anchiale(ia) see already alpha 395.
Keywords: architecture; biography; definition; geography; history
Translated by: Anne Mahoney on 27 March 1999@18:16:37.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added headword, note, keywords) on 13 February 2001@07:10:57.
David Whitehead on 9 January 2012@05:36:48.

Headword: Adiabênê
Adler number: alpha,470
Translated headword: Adiabene
Vetting Status: high
This territory lies this side of Mesopotamia, effectively at the source of the Tigris. In it there is bitumen which is called naphtha. It is called Adiabene because there are rather large rivers in it[1] and it is hard to make the crossing [diabasis]. Nineveh[2] is also there. The bitumen provides such a degree of security for the buildings that, once mixed with the baked bricks and brittle stones, it becomes harder than any iron. There too is the Birdless[3] cave, from which rises a terrible vapour, so that it kills every terrestrial animal and every bird that might happen to sniff it. And if [the vapour] were spread abroad, the place would not be inhabited, but straightway they go up and go off again a little way and catch their breath. And this is how both the [creatures] which fly on high and those that dwell all around are saved.
Also [sc. attested is the associated adjective] Adiabenos ["Adiabenian"].
Greek Original:
Adiabênê: hautê hê chôra keitai pro tês Mesopotamias hôs epi anatolên peran tou Tigrêtos. en autêi de esti kai asphaltos hê legomenê naphtha. legetai de Adiabênê dia to einai pleious potamous en autêi kai duscheresteran poiein tên diabasin. ekei esti kai hê Nineui. tosautên de asphaleian poiei tois ktismasin hê asphaltos, hôste tais optais plinthois kai tois leptois lithois summigeisa ischurotera ginetai pantos sidêrou. ekeise de esti kai to Aornon stomion, ex hou deinon pneuma anadidotai, hôste pan men epigeion zôion, pan de ptênon apophtheirein kai ei pros to tuchon osphrêsaito. kai ei eskedannuto, ouk an ôikisthê ho chôros, alla kat' eutheian aneisi kai oligon anerchomenon palin antanaklatai. kai ek toutou ta te en hupsêloterôi petomena sôizetai, kai ta perix nemomena. kai Adiabênos.
The main paragraph of this entry is Preger (ed.), Scriptores originum Constantinopolitanarum 151; cf. alpha 4296.
On Adiabene, in present-day Iraq, see generally OCD(4) s.v. (p.12); Barrington Atlas map 91 grids E1 & 2/F1 & 2; and cf. alpha 40.
[1] The two Zab rivers as well as the Tigris itself.
[2] nu 415.
[3] For the same name applied to a different place see alpha 2849.
Keywords: architecture; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; historiography; science and technology; trade and manufacture; zoology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 17 March 2001@00:26:43.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added notes, bibliography, keywords) on 17 March 2001@08:38:36.
David Whitehead (restorative cosmetics) on 30 April 2002@08:06:44.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; another keyword; cosmetics) on 14 August 2009@09:23:53.
David Whitehead (tweaks and cosmetics) on 10 January 2012@09:17:42.
Catharine Roth (typo) on 8 August 2013@16:30:57.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@03:05:13.

Headword: Aduton
Adler number: alpha,542
Translated headword: adyton, innermost sanctuary
Vetting Status: high
A cave, or the hidden part of the shrine.
Greek Original:
Aduton: spêlaion, ê to apokruphon meros tou hierou.
"Not to be entered," from du/w "go into" with alpha privative. See LSJ at web address 1, and cf. under mu 1027.
Same entry in Photius and elsewhere.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: architecture; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; religion
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 10 April 2000@09:18:30.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Added note and link.) on 10 September 2000@01:00:14.
David Whitehead (added keywords) on 23 July 2003@07:26:48.
David Whitehead (augmented headword and note) on 14 August 2006@09:03:40.
David Whitehead (tweaked note) on 11 January 2012@11:16:21.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note and link) on 5 December 2013@00:50:19.

Headword: Aetos tôn oikodomêmatôn
Adler number: alpha,576
Translated headword: gable of the buildings
Vetting Status: high
The part at the roof, which some call a pediment [aetoma].
Greek Original:
Aetos tôn oikodomêmatôn: to kata ton orophon, ho tines aetôma kalousin.
Abridged from Harpokration s.v. (where 'of the buildings' is part of the gloss, not of the headword).
The entry originated in ancient comment on Aristophanes, Birds 1110 (web address 1); cf. alpha 578.
"Temple-roofs, unlike those of private houses, which were flat, ended in triangular pediments known as aetoi or aetomata, presumably as resembling the shape of an eagle [aetos] with spread wings" (Nan Dunbar, Aristophanes: Birds, edited with introduction and commentary (Oxford 1995) 592).
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: architecture; comedy; definition; imagery; religion; zoology
Translated by: David Whitehead on 1 May 2002@07:01:07.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (added link) on 1 May 2002@10:50:58.
David Whitehead (augmented note) on 10 June 2003@07:20:14.
David Whitehead (x-ref and another keyword) on 16 August 2006@07:17:19.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 20 July 2011@06:24:49.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 18 January 2012@23:17:55.

Headword: Aetômata
Adler number: alpha,578
Translated headword: gables
Vetting Status: high
They call the roofs of shrines wings and gables.[1] Aristophanes [writes]: "we shall crown the houses in gable style."[2] Meaning we shall cover [them].
Greek Original:
Aetômata: ta tôn hierôn stegasmata pterugas kai aetous kalousin. Aristophanês: tas oikias erepsomen pros aeton. anti tou stegasomen.
The headword is nominative/accusative plural of the neuter noun ae/twma; it does not recur in what follows, which instead switches to the related term a)eto/s (cf. already alpha 576).
[1] A word also meaning eagles: cf. alpha 573, alpha 574, alpha 575, alpha 577, and see generally LSJ s.v.
[2] An approximation of Aristophanes, Birds 1110 (web address 1 below).
Aristophanes, Birds, edited with introduction and commentary by Nan Dunbar (Oxford 1995) 592
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: architecture; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; religion; zoology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 19 March 2001@20:25:49.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes; added bibliography and keywords) on 20 March 2001@05:50:32.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 16 August 2006@07:13:59.
Jennifer Benedict (updated Perseus link) on 15 March 2008@22:26:20.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 12 January 2012@06:22:15.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 18 January 2012@23:53:35.

Headword: Aêmai
Adler number: alpha,656
Translated headword: I swing, I hang (?)
Vetting Status: high
[sc. The word occurs] in the Epigrams: "a shield from the mortal shoulders of Timanor, I swing beneath the roof in the temple of Pallas."[1]
Meaning I am dedicated.
Greek Original:
Aêmai: en Epigrammasin: aspis apo broteôn ômôn Timanôros aêmai nêôi huporrophias Pallados. anti tou anakeimai.
[1] Greek Anthology 6.124.1-2 (Hegesippus), the dedication of a shield to Athena; again at alpha 1281 and tau 594; cf. Gow and Page, vol. I (104) and vol. II (299); cf. a further excerpt from this epigram at kappa 1254. The verb at the end of line 1 (here appearing as the headword) is twice (here and in tau 594) given as a)/hmai. Gow and Page follow (vol. I, 104) the Anthologia Planudea in reading h(=mai "I sit, I am located" and *tima/noros with an omicron, but note that both the Suda and the Anthologia Palatina transmit the unmetrical *tima/nwros a)/hmai.
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. I, (Cambridge 1965)
A.S.F. Gow and D.L. Page, eds., The Greek Anthology: Hellenistic Epigrams, vol. II, (Cambridge 1965)
Keywords: architecture; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; imagery; military affairs; meter and music; poetry; religion
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 16 March 2001@22:22:46.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented and modified note; added keywords; cosmetics) on 17 March 2001@07:08:14.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 13 January 2012@04:56:41.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 17 January 2012@00:58:09.
Ronald Allen (expanded n.1, added bibliography, added cross-reference) on 28 December 2018@02:52:04.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note) on 28 December 2018@12:24:06.
Catharine Roth (tweak instigated by Ron Allen) on 28 December 2018@13:06:54.
Catharine Roth (tweaked headword and note) on 28 December 2018@13:14:47.
Ronald Allen (further expanded n.1) on 30 December 2018@13:09:47.
Ronald Allen (my beta code typo and tweak n.1) on 30 December 2018@16:28:31.
Catharine Roth (further tweaks, after discussion with Ronald Allen) on 31 December 2018@00:56:40.

Headword: Athênaios
Adler number: alpha,731
Translated headword: Athenaios, Athenaeus
Vetting Status: high
Of Naucratis.[1] Grammarian. Lived in the time of Marcus. He wrote a book with the title Deipnosophists, in which he records how many of the ancients had a reputation for munificence in giving banquets.[2]
Alexander the Great, after that naval victory over the Spartans and after he had fortified the Peiraeus, sacrificed a hecatomb and feasted all the Athenians.[3] And after his Olympic victory Alcibiades gave a feast for the whole festival.[4] Leophron did the same at the Olympic games.[5] And Empedocles of Acragas, being a Pythagorean and an abstainer from animal food, when he won an Olympic victory made an ox out of incense, myrrh and expensive perfumes and divided it among those who came to the festival. And Ion of Chios, when he won a victory in the tragic competition at Athens, gave every Athenian a jar of Chian [sc. wine].[6] And Tellias of Acragas, a hospitable man, when 500 horsemen were billeted with him during the winter, gave each of them a cloak and tunic.[7] [It is on record] that Charmus of Syracuse used to utter little verses and proverbs for every one of the dishes served at his banquets. Clearchus of Soli calls the poem Deipnology, others Opsology, Chrysippus Gastronomy, others The Life of Luxury [Hedypatheia].[8] [It is on record] that in Plato's symposium there were 28 diners.
Greek Original:
Athênaios, Naukratitês, grammatikos, gegonôs epi tôn chronôn Markou. egrapse biblion onoma Deipnosophistai: en hôi mnêmoneuei, hosoi tôn palaiôn megalopsuchôs edoxan hestian. ho megas Alexandros kakeinên nikêsas naumachian Lakedaimonious kai teichisas ton Peiraia kai hekatombên thusas pantas heistiasen Athênaious. kai Alkibiadês Olumpia nikêsas tên panêgurin hapasan heistiase. to auto kai Leophrôn Olumpiasi. kai Empedoklês ho Akragantinos, Puthagorikos ôn kai empsuchôn apechomenos, Olumpia nikêsas, ek libanôtou kai smurnês kai tôn polutelôn arômatôn boun anaplasas dieneime tois eis tên panêgurin apantêsasi. kai ho Chios Iôn tragôidian nikêsas Athênêsin hekastôi tôn Athênaiôn edôke Chion keramion. kai ho Akragantinos Tellias philoxenos ôn katalusasi pote ph# hippeusin hôrai cheimônos, edôken hekastôi chitôna kai himation. hoti Charmos ho Surakousios eis hekaston tôn en tois deipnois paratithemenôn stichidia kai paroimias elege. Klearchos de ho Soleus deipnologian kalei to poiêma, alloi opsologian, Chrusippos gastronomian, alloi hêdupatheian. hoti en tôi sumposiôi Platônos kê# êsan daitumones.
Fl. c. AD 200. See generally RE Athenaios(22); NP Athenaios(3); OCD4 Athenaeus(1); Olson (2006), vii.
[1] In Egypt (see nu 58).
[2] cf. delta 359, sigma 1397. What follows is excerpted from Athenaeus 1.3D-4A [1.5 Kaibel], 4E (epit.).
[3] Two of Athenaeus' examples (3D) have been run together here (and again at alpha 1123): the 'naval victory over the Spartans' refers to Conon's victory at Cnidus (394 BC).
[4] cf. alpha 1280 (end).
[5] Athenaeus says (3E) that Simonides wrote a victory ode commemorating this (PMG 515, and Olson, 2006, 15 n.34).
[6] cf. iota 487 (end) and chi 314. On "Chian" and other wines with specific (though not necessarily simple) city-connections see A. Dalby, "Topikos Oinos", in D. Harvey and J. Wilkins (eds.), The Rivals of Aristophanes (London 2000) 397-405.
[7] cf. tau 272.
[8] cf. chi 132. The poem in question was in fact by Archestratus of Gela; see discussion of the title (most probably Hedypatheia) in S. D. Olson and A. Sens (eds.), Archestratos of Gela: Greek Culture and Cuisine in the Fourth Century BCE(Oxford 2000) xxii-xxiv.
D. Braund and J. Wilkins, eds. Athenaeus and his World. Exeter, 2000
S.D. Olson, Athenaeus: The Learned Banqueters (Loeb Classical Library: 2006-)
Keywords: architecture; athletics; biography; chronology; clothing; economics; food; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; philosophy; proverbs; religion; tragedy
Translated by: Malcolm Heath on 7 July 1999@14:13:15.
Vetted by:
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added transliteration to headword) on 14 August 2000@14:39:21.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 15 June 2001@06:09:35.
David Whitehead (augmented note 6) on 3 August 2001@10:02:27.
David Whitehead (augmented initial note; added bibliography; cosmetics) on 11 October 2002@03:28:29.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added italics; cosmetics) on 12 February 2005@22:01:08.
Aikaterini Oikonomopoulou (Augmented and corrected notes; added bibliography) on 21 February 2008@14:05:08.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 22 February 2008@04:03:13.
David Whitehead (tweaked bibliographical item) on 20 January 2012@04:12:30.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 19 January 2014@07:25:01.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@08:24:54.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 22 November 2014@22:08:06.
David Whitehead (expanded a ref) on 14 January 2015@03:48:39.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 May 2022@22:39:13.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 18 May 2023@01:58:35.

Headword: Akathairetos
Adler number: alpha,777
Translated headword: impregnable, irrefragable
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] indestructible.
"Impregnable tower".[1]
Greek Original:
Akathairetos: akatablêtos. purgos akathairetos.
Same entry in ps.-Zonaras.
[1] If this phrase is the quotation is appears to be, it is unidentifiable. (But the glossing word, a)kata/blhtos, is used of towers in a scholion to Euripides, Hecuba 1.)
Keywords: architecture; definition; military affairs; tragedy
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 10 January 2000@23:09:26.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 23 May 2002@07:05:14.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 22 January 2012@08:11:15.
David Whitehead on 3 May 2015@10:11:23.

Headword: Akakios
Adler number: alpha,783
Translated headword: Akakios, Acacius
Vetting Status: high
The patriarch of Constantinople, he was revered as no other. For he was the guardian of orphans, and it was evident to all that he managed the affairs of the orphans well and with pleasure. Moreoever, he became an acquaintance of the emperor Leo with whom he found immense favor. He [Leo] confided his affairs, both public and private, to this man first of all. When he assembled the senate, he invited this man as well and turned the beginning of every discussion over to him.
This Akakios realized the savagery of Leo Makelles[1] toward those who had offended him in some way and had accurately divined his character; but because this was something only those who flattered him had the opportunity to observe, he made a habit of marvelling at all that he did. Nevertheless he was readily able to rein [Leo] in and easily made him slacken his anger. He also brought about the salvation of many who ran afoul of him, and managed to have those sentenced to life-long exile recalled to their homeland.
After the death of Gennadios, patriarch of Constantinople, he was nominated to serve in that priesthood with the backing of Zenon. Since he was a natural leader and took all the churches under his direct control, he exercised a deliberate discrimination concerning those who were appointed to the churches. They in gratitude dedicated images of him in their prayer chambers. Thus, when images of him appeared in all the churches, some people began to think that he, in a pursuit of empty glory, had ordered their dedication, and no small confirmation of this suspicion was supplied by the mosaic image fashioned in the church by the harbor. For although the entire work had been completed in the time of Gennadios, in a conspicuous place in the temple they portrayed [Akakios] and after him the Savior saying to Gennadios 'destroy this temple', and over him 'after you I will raise him up.'[2] As a result of such images, then, Akakios, though he was generous and a capable leader, nevertheless seemed to all to be excessively ambitious.[3]
See concerning this man under Basiliskos.[4]
Greek Original:
Akakios: ho patriarchês Kônstantinoupoleôs, aidesimos ên hôs ouk allos tis. orphanotrophos gar gegonôs kai kalôs ta tôn orphanôn dioikôn pasin ephaineto kath' hêdonên. kai dê kai tôi basilei Leonti sunêthês gegonôs huperphuôs êreske kai toutôi prôtôi aei panta anekoinouto ta te koina kai ta idia. kai hote tên boulên êthroize, sunekalei kai touton kai tês skepseôs archên ex autou pasês etitheto. hos Akakios tên tou Leontos tou Makellê ômotêta sunidôn pros tous ti lupêsantas kai to êthos akribôs to ekeinou phôrasas, hoti tois epainousi monon huparchei eualôton, epetêdeue panta ta ekeinou thaumazein. toigaroun peithênion auton eichen hetoimôs ton te thumon autou rhaidiôs katestelle kai pollois proskekroukosi tên sôtêrian epragmateueto kai tous exorian aïdion echontas anekaleito pros tên patrida. houtos meta thanaton Gennadiou, patriarchou Kônstantinoupoleôs, spoudêi Zênônos hierasthai proeblêthê. hos ôn archikos kai pasas tas ekklêsias huph' heauton poiêsas pephrontismenôs tôn en autais keklêrômenôn epoieito tên kêdemonian, hoi eucharistountes en graphais anethêkan auton kata tous euktêrious oikous. epeiper oun athroon en pasais tais ekklêsiais edeichthêsan autou eikones, ôiêthêsan tines kenodoxounta tên anathesin prostetachenai ou mikran echontes tês huponoias pistôsin, tên ek psêphidôn graphên dêmiourgêtheisan en têi pros tôi neôriôi ekklêsiai. tou gar ergou pantos epi Gennadiou telesthentos eis ton epiphanê topon exetupôsan auton tou neô kai metaxu toude ton Sôtêra legonta tôi Gennadiôi, luson ton naon touton, kai epi tou, meta se egerô auton. ek tôn toioutôn oun eikonôn Akakios, ei kai eumetadotos ên kai prostatikos, alla doxomanês pasin edoxen huparchein. zêtei peri touton en tôi Basiliskos.
On Acacius or Akakios, see web address 1.
[1] Leo "the Butcher": see lambda 267 and biography (by Hugh Elton) at web address 2.
[2] cf. John 2.19.
[3] Valesius (Henri de Valois 1603-1676) attributed this entry to Malchus (on Theodore the Reader 167); now accepted as Malchus fr.2b Cresci.
[4] beta 164.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: architecture; art history; biography; children; Christianity; chronology; ethics; geography; historiography; history; law; religion
Translated by: William Hutton on 1 June 2001@11:30:21.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (added links) on 1 June 2001@18:44:50.
William Hutton (Modified translation) on 3 June 2001@11:10:35.
Catharine Roth (added note) on 28 February 2002@00:12:18.
Catharine Roth (augmented translation and notes) on 28 February 2002@13:38:30.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 October 2005@11:17:30.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note, added cross-reference) on 20 May 2008@11:40:57.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 22 January 2012@08:28:19.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 31 January 2015@07:57:40.
Catharine Roth (tweaked note) on 3 May 2015@23:35:20.

Headword: Akrogôniaios
Adler number: alpha,999
Translated headword: extreme-angled, corner-most
Vetting Status: high
[no gloss]
Greek Original:
An architectural term co-opted for use as a theological one. See e.g. Isaiah 28:16 LXX, Ephesians 2:20, 1st Peter 2:6.
Keywords: architecture; Christianity; imagery; religion
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 5 March 2000@02:38:17.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Added to translation; added citations and keyword.) on 9 June 2000@22:52:20.
David Whitehead (modified headword, note, keywords) on 10 June 2003@09:37:31.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 31 January 2012@08:48:41.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 26 April 2012@01:32:19.
David Whitehead on 15 August 2015@07:55:44.

Headword: Akrotomos
Adler number: alpha,1021
Translated headword: cut-off, sharp, abrupt
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] hard, lofty.[1]
Or a very sharp stone, the one cutting.
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] "akrotomos rock", [meaning] the hard and uncuttable [sort].[2]
But [sc. also attested is neuter] "akrotomon mountain", [meaning] the mighty one, in [the book of] Job.[3]
"In Mount Aurasios[4] there was an akrotomos rock rising up in the middle of cliffs; this, naturally, the men of old made into a short tower and [so] built a kind of strong and impregnable refuge with the nature of the terrain assisting them".[5]
Greek Original:
Akrotomos: sklêros, hupsêlos. ê oxutatos lithos, ho temnôn. kai Akrotomos petra, hê sklêra kai atmêtos. Akrotomon de oros, to dunaton, para tôi Iôb. en Aurasiôi tôi orei petra akrotomos ên krêmnôn meson anechousa: ho dê purgon hoi palai anthrôpoi brachun komidêi poiêsamenoi kataphugên tina ischuran kai amêchanon tês tou chôriou phuseôs sphisi xullambanousês edeimanto.
[1] Same glossing in Photius and elsewhere.
[2] See n. 5 below.
[3] Job 40.15 LXX.
[4] In northeastern Algeria, the Aurès Mountains (Latin: Aurasius Mons) are the eastern continuation of the Saharan Atlas; cf. Barrington Atlas map 34 grid D2-D3.
[5] Procopius, History of the Wars of Justinian 4.20.23 (web address 1); cf. Kaldellis (235).
A. Kaldellis, ed. and H.B. Dewing, trans., Prokopios: The Wars of Justinian, (Indianapolis 2014)
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: architecture; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; religion; science and technology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 6 March 2000@16:50:45.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added notes and keyword; cosmetics) on 26 January 2001@08:00:08.
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 6 June 2002@06:20:47.
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 1 February 2012@07:56:35.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 16 May 2015@00:50:57.
David Whitehead on 23 May 2015@03:34:09.
David Whitehead on 15 August 2015@07:57:51.
Ronald Allen (expanded n.4, added map reference; added link n.5, added bibliography) on 13 December 2023@11:53:59.

Headword: Akrôtêrion
Adler number: alpha,1031
Translated headword: extremity
Vetting Status: high
[no gloss]
Greek Original:
Comparable entry, according to Adler, in the Ambrosian Lexicon (1061).
The neuter noun is used in various contexts: top of a mountain, promontory of land, ornament of ship's stern-post, ornament on the angle of the pediment of a building; (in the plural) extremities of the limbs (hands, feet, fingers, toes). See LSJ entry at web address 1.
cf. alpha 1030.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: architecture; art history; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; medicine; military affairs
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 16 February 2001@21:20:37.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Cosmetics, set status) on 22 February 2001@23:28:29.
David Whitehead (x-ref) on 3 January 2005@11:03:23.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 19 May 2015@23:36:28.
David Whitehead (another note and keyword) on 23 May 2015@10:57:44.

Headword: Aktê
Adler number: alpha,1036
Translated headword: Akte, Acte
Vetting Status: high
In a particular sense a part of Attica by the sea; from where the Actite stone [sc. originates].[1] But they also used to use this name for [sc. the entirety of] Attica, some [deriving it] from a certain king Aktaion, others because most of the country is close to the sea.[2]
Greek Original:
Aktê: idiôs epithalattidios tis moira tês Attikês, hothen kai ho Aktitês lithos. ekaloun de houtôs kai tên Attikên, hoi men apo tinos Aktaiônos basileôs, hoi de dia to tên pleiô tês chôras epithalattion einai.
Abridged from Harpokration s.v., an entry generated by Hyperides fr. 185 Jensen.
[1] From the Piraeus. See R.E. Wycherley, The Stones of Athens (Princeton 1978) 271.
[2] For the latter cf. generally alpha 1032, alpha 1035.
Keywords: aetiology; architecture; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; geography; mythology; rhetoric
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 13 April 2000@01:04:58.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (cosmetics; augmented note) on 1 October 2000@09:37:16.
David Whitehead (augemnted notes and keywords; cosmetics) on 6 June 2002@07:22:04.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 24 June 2011@09:29:03.

Headword: Aktitês lithos
Adler number: alpha,1038
Translated headword: Aktite stone
Vetting Status: high
[See] above under Akte.[1]
Greek Original:
Aktitês lithos: anô en tôi aktê.
[1] alpha 1036.
Keywords: architecture; geography; science and technology
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 13 April 2000@01:13:41.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead on 18 February 2001@11:02:27.
David Whitehead on 1 February 2012@09:38:40.

Headword: Akulêïa
Adler number: alpha,1043
Translated headword: Aquileia
Vetting Status: high
A populous city of Italy, lying on [= by] the sea.
Also [sc. attested are] 'Aquileians', [meaning] the citizens [of it].[1]
Greek Original:
Akulêïa: polis Italias poluanthrôpos, prokeimenê en thalattêi. kai Akulêïsioi, hoi politai.
OCD(4) p.129; Barrington Atlas map 19 grid F4. (NB: the present gloss makes it clear that this is not the smaller Aquileia in Germany: ib. map 12 grid D4.) See also alpha 938.
Aquileia has a strategic location at the head of the Adriatic Sea, controlling roads over the Alps. Gauls occupied the site in 186 BC. The Romans ejected them and founded a Latin colony in 181 BC (Livy 39.22, 54; 40.34). Aquileia was a large military, commercial, and industrial city under the empire. The amber trade was especially important (Strabo 4.207f.; 5.214). A Christian church council was held there in 381 with Ambrose presiding. Attila sacked the city in 452 but did not destroy it. Aquileia's bishop became a patriarch in the 6th century and the patriarchate continued influential through the middle ages. Information on councils held at Aquileia may be found on the Catholic Encyclopedia web site (web address 1). Excavations of the basilica have revealed remarkable 4th-century floor mosaics (see UNESCO World Heritage Site page at web address 2).
[2] Stephanus of Byzantium s.v. gives the ethnikon as *\Akulh/ios, but the Suda's form is the norm in (e.g.) Herodian's History.
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: architecture; art history; Christianity; definition; geography; historiography; history; religion; trade and manufacture
Translated by: Catharine Roth on 2 July 2000@17:17:08.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added bibliography; cosmetics) on 18 February 2001@11:09:12.
Catharine Roth (Modified links.) on 23 February 2001@20:28:14.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics, keyword) on 11 October 2005@21:50:50.
David Whitehead (augmented note and keywords) on 12 October 2005@03:00:38.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 20 November 2005@10:43:24.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference) on 21 February 2006@17:43:45.
Catharine Roth (modified links) on 1 February 2012@19:03:49.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 July 2014@04:06:49.
David Whitehead (another note and keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 24 May 2015@04:08:41.

Headword: All' esthi' elthôn tous Megakleous kionas
Adler number: alpha,1143
Translated headword: but go and eat the pillars of Megacles
Vetting Status: high
As if he said the wealth [of Megacles]. He is indicating through these [words] that nothing was left to him, except the courtyard. Meaning the stones of Megacles' house. For these alone were left behind once he had eaten everything. The old man says this to his son. Aristophanes in Clouds [uses the phrase]. The saying [is used] in reference to those eating without restraint.
Greek Original:
All' esthi' elthôn tous Megakleous kionas: hôs [ei] eipe ton plouton. emphainei dia toutôn, hoti ouden autôi kateleiphthê, ei mê hê aulê. anti tou tous lithous tês Megakleous oikias. houtoi gar monoi kateleiphthêsan autôi panta phagonti. legei de ho presbutês pros ton huion. Aristophanês en Nephelais. epi tôn aneimenôs diaitômenôn ho logos.
Aristophanes, Clouds 815, with scholion.
For "pillars of Megacles" as a pun on "pillars of Heracles" see the note to mu 354.
Keywords: architecture; biography; comedy; economics; ethics; food; imagery; proverbs
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 6 May 2000@16:00:57.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; added note and keyword; cosmetics) on 28 January 2001@05:58:25.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 4 December 2005@08:36:38.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 5 February 2012@04:43:09.

Headword: Amphideas
Adler number: alpha,1715

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