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Headword: Θούρρας
Adler number: theta,417
Translated headword: Thourras, Thurras, Thouros, Thuros
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
This man was king of the Assyrians after Ninus.[1] They called him after the name of the planet Ares.[2] He was very terrible and made war against the tyrant Caucasus, descended from the tribe of Japheth[3], and destroyed him. The Assyrians worshipped him as a god and named him Baal, which is in their own language Ares, overseer of wars. The prophet Daniel, too, mentions him.[4]
Greek Original:
Θούρρας: οὗτος ἐβασίλευσε μετὰ Νῖνον Ἀσσυρίων, ὅντινα μετεκάλεσαν εἰς ὄνομα τοῦ πλανήτου ἀστέρος Ἄρεα: ὃς ἦν δεινὸς σφόδρα καὶ πολεμήσας Καυκάσῳ τυράννῳ, ἐκ τῆς φυλῆς Ἰάφεθ καταγομένῳ, ἀνεῖλεν αὐτόν. τούτῳ προσεκύνησαν Ἀσσύριοι ὡς θεῷ καὶ ὠνόμασαν αὐτὸν Βάαλ, ὅ ἐστι κατὰ τὴν αὐτῶν γλῶσσαν Ἄρης, πολέμων ἔφορος: οὗ μνημονεύει καὶ ὁ προφήτης Δανιήλ.
Notes:
The immediate source of this entry is unknown, but compare Malalas p.19.1ff Dindorf and [John of Antioch] fr.61.1 FHG (4.542) = 6.1b Roberto; cf. generally eta 235, eta 661.
[1] For Ninus see nu 417. Neither Ninus nor any name like Thourras appear in the Assyrian king-lists (web address 1 below). From Roman times on, Ninus is the eponymous hero of Nineveh but Thourras is much later. [In Joel p.4 Bekker, from the thirteenth century, it is 'Thurras'.] The name Thourras seems to have derived from a misunderstanding of thouros, an epithet of Ares in Homer, Iliad 15.127 (etc.), "violent Ares," which strayed into the muddled Greek and Roman notion of Near Eastern history.
[2] Mars.
[3] The descendants of Noah's son Japheth are listed in Genesis 10:2-5, and the lexicographer must have identified one of them (probably Magog) with the Caucasus.
[4] What the lexicographer has in mind is "Bel and the Dragon." It appears in the Apocrypha as the 14th chapter of Daniel and describes the undoing of the priests of Bel but does not call him the god of war. Bel and Baal are here identified and are, in fact, cognate names; cf. beta 1 and beta 24.
Reference:
Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopaedie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, n.s., 6.1, p.655.
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; chronology; ethics; geography; military affairs; mythology; religion
Translated by: Oliver Phillips ✝ on 18 June 2001@23:44:19.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes; added keywords; cosmetics) on 19 June 2001@03:17:09.
David Whitehead (added x-refs; cosmetics) on 27 May 2003@05:46:11.
David Whitehead (more for n.1, from Dr Nick Nicholas) on 7 June 2009@08:59:39.
Catharine Roth (removed defunct links) on 19 September 2011@23:11:04.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaking) on 4 January 2013@06:19:32.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 January 2015@03:09:57.
David Whitehead (coding) on 28 April 2016@05:07:03.

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