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Headword: Θεμιστοκλῆς
Adler number: theta,125
Translated headword: Themistocles, Themistokles
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
A general of the Athenians.[1] He was victorious against the barbarians in the sea-battle at Salamis. Later on he was exiled by the Athenians on a false charge of treason. He fled to Artaxerxes, the son of Xerxes of Persia, and was handsomely rewarded by him, receiving three cities to supply his meat, bread, and wine--Magnesia, Myous, and Lampsakos.[2] He promised to enslave Greece to Artaxerxes[3], if he had the resources. But he was with the army in Magnesia and--condemning himself if the Greeks, who had been saved with his help, should be subject to barbarians because of him--using as a pretext that he wanted to make an offering and sacrifice to Artemis Leucophryene, he put a bowl under the sacrificial bull and caught up the blood. He drank it greedily and died.[4]
Greek Original:
Θεμιστοκλῆς, στρατηγὸς Ἀθηναίων, ὁ καταναυμαχήσας ἐν τῇ περὶ Σαλαμῖνα ναυμαχίᾳ τοὺς βαρβάρους, εἶθ' ὕστερον φυγαδευθεὶς ὑπὸ τῶν Ἀθηναίων ἐπὶ προδοσίας αἰτίᾳ ψευδεῖ, καταφυγὼν πρὸς Ἀρταξέρξην, τὸν Ξέρξου τοῦ Πέρσου παῖδα, καὶ τιμηθεὶς τὰ μέγιστα παρ' αὐτοῦ, ὡς τρεῖς πόλεις εἰς ὄψον καὶ ἄρτον καὶ ποτὸν λαβεῖν, Μαγνησίαν, Μυοῦντα, Λάμψακον. ἐπηγγείλατο οὖν τοῦ καταδουλώσασθαι τὴν Ἑλλάδα, δύναμιν εἰ λάβοι. παραγενόμενος δὲ ἅμα τῷ στρατεύματι εἰς Μαγνησίαν, καταγνοὺς ἑαυτοῦ, εἰ δι' αὐτὸν σωθέντες Ἕλληνες δι' αὐτοῦ δουλεύσουσι βαρβάροις, προφάσει χρησάμενος, ὡς θυσίαν ἐπιτελέσαι βούλεται καὶ ἱερουργῆσαι τῇ Λευκοφρυί̈νων Ἀρτέμιδι, τῷ ταύρῳ ὑποθεὶς τὴν φιάλην καὶ ὑποδεξάμενος τὸ αἷμα, χανδὸν πιὼν ἐτελεύτησεν.
Notes:
See already theta 124 (and again theta 126). The present material comes from the scholia to Aristophanes, Knights 84, where he is mentioned.
[1] No. 2901 in Index I of Robert Develin, Athenian Officials 684-321 B.C. (Cambridge, 1989).
[2] cf. Thucydides 1.138.5; Cornelius Nepos, Themistocles 10.3; Plutarch, Themistocles 29.
[3] ἐπηγγείλατο οὖν τοῦ καταδουλώσασθαι . The οὖν τοῦ is presumably a corruption of αὐτῷ in the Aristophanic scholion, and is translated as such here.
[4] On Themistokles' death cf. Aristophanes, Knights 83-84; Diodorus Siculus 11.58.3. According to Thucydides 1.138.4 he died of illness.
Keywords: biography; comedy; ethics; food; geography; history; medicine; military affairs; politics; religion; zoology
Translated by: Debra Hamel on 12 August 1999@18:52:48.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (supplied headword; augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 16 February 2003@12:14:28.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 8 December 2003@03:25:49.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 17 January 2004@01:16:22.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaking) on 31 December 2012@05:35:57.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 1 January 2013@23:14:19.
Catharine Roth (cosmeticule) on 15 October 2018@01:51:22.

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