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Headword: Ψαμμακοσιογάργαρα
Adler number: psi,22
Translated headword: sandhundredabundance
Vetting Status: high
The compound was formed from words that signify many things; for it is built upon [the idea of] knowing the number of the sands. For the Pythios foolishly claims to know the number of the sands: "I know the number of the sands and the measures of the sea."[1] And Eupolis added to the meaning [of the word], saying "to count the sandhundred spectators."[2] The '-hundreds'[3] can be added to the word since it is an ending of the numbers from ten to a thousand; it signifies a great quantity, as in 'two hundred' 'three hundred' and so on. And 'abundance' [gargara], too, is used in the sense of 'multitude' because of the similarity between 'g' and 'k'; it is said instead of 'indescribable' and 'countless'. 'Trembled' [karkaire] is in the Poet: "the earth trembled under their feet".[4] Cratinus also mentions it: "the whole city abounds with noble men".[5] That is, with a multitude. Otherwise: like 'many' and 'countless'; for 'sandhundred' itself was used to describe a multitude. For instance, in Eupolis' Golden Race as follows: "to count the sandhundred spectators."[6] Arisen from the sand, arithmetically speaking. And 'abundance' was used in place of 'multitude'. As in Limnai: "the whole hearth abounds with foreign men."[7] And in Aristomenes in Allies: "there is an abundance for us inside."[8] And in Sophron: "the house abounds with silver-plate."[9] Also in tragedy: "abundance of money."[10] But some propose that what the Poet says, "the ground trembled [karkaire] under their feet," refers to the multiple movements of the feet, that is, an abundance. Also that the crab [karkinos] is so called because of the multitude of its feet.
Greek Original:
Ψαμμακοσιογάργαρα: ἀπὸ λέξεων τὸ σύνθετον ἐγένετο δηλουσῶν πολλά: σύγκειται γὰρ ἀπὸ τοῦ τῆς ψάμμου τὸν ἀριθμὸν εἰδέναι: ὁ γὰρ Πύθιος νεανιεύεται τῆς ψάμμου τὸν ἀριθμὸν εἰδέναι: οἶδα δ' ἐγὼ ψάμμου τ' ἀριθμὸν καὶ μέτρα θαλάσσης. καὶ Εὔπολις ἐπεσημήνατο τὴν λέξιν, εἰπών: ἀριθμεῖν θεατὰς ψαμμακοσίους. δύναται δὲ ἐγκεῖσθαι τῇ λέξει τὰ κοσια ἥτις ἐστὶ κατάληξις τῶν μετὰ τὸν δέκα ἀριθμὸν μέχρι τῶν χιλίων: ὃς πλήθους ἐστὶ πολλοῦ σημαντικός, οἷον διακόσια, τριακόσια, καὶ τὰ ἑξῆς. τὸ δὲ γάργαρα καὶ αὐτὸ ἐπὶ πλήθους λαμβάνεται διὰ τὴν συγγένειαν τοῦ γ τὴν πρὸς τὸ κ: εἴρηται δὲ ἀντὶ τοῦ ἄφατα καὶ ἀναρίθμητα. τὸ δὲ κάρκαιρε παρὰ τῷ ποιητῇ, κάρκαιρε δὲ γαῖα πόδεσσι. μέμνηται καὶ Κρατῖνος: ἀρίστων ἀνδρῶν πᾶσα γαργαίρει πόλις. οἷον πλήθει. ἄλλως: οἷον πολλὰ καὶ ἀναρίθμητα: τὸ γὰρ ψαμμακόσια καθ' ἑαυτὸ ἐπὶ πλήθους ἐτίθετο. παρὰ μὲν Εὐπόλιδι ἐν Χρυσῷ γένει οὕτως: ἀριθμεῖν θεατὰς ψαμμακοσίους. ἀπὸ τῆς ψάμμου ἀριθμητικῶς γεγενημένον. καὶ τὰ γάργαρα δὲ ἐπὶ πλήθους ἐτίθετο: ὡς ἐν Λίμναις: ἀνδρῶν ἐπακτῶν πᾶσα γάργαιρ' ἑστία. καὶ παρὰ Ἀριστομένει ἐν Βοηθοῖς: ἔνδον γὰρ ἡμῖν γάργαρα. καὶ παρὰ Σώφρονι: ἁ δὲ οἰκία τῶν ἀργυρωμάτων γάργαιρε. καὶ ἐν τῇ τραγῳδίᾳ: χρημάτων τε γάργαρα. θέλουσι δέ τινες καὶ τὸ παρὰ τῷ ποιητῇ, κάρκαιρε δὲ γαῖα πόδεσσι: τὴν πολλὴν κίνησιν τῶν ποδῶν σημαίνειν: οἷον γάργαιρε. καὶ τὸν καρκίνον δὲ οὕτως ὀνομάζεσθαι διὰ τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ποδῶν.
From the scholia to Aristophanes, Acharnians 3, where this nonsense-word occurs.
[1] Adler does print '[the] Pythios', and reports that ms S has 'the Pythinos'; one should understand, however, 'the Pythia' (the oracular priestess of Apollo at Delphi) as in the source of this quotation, Herodotus 1.47.2.
[2] Eupolis fr. 286 Kock, now 308 K.-A.
[3] cf. kappa 2135 (with double sigma).
[4] Homer, Iliad 20.157.
[5] Cratinus fr. 290 Kock, now 321 K.-A.
[6] See n. 2 above.
[7] Aristophanes fr. 359 Kock (now 375 K.-A.), from the Lemniai (sic).
[8] Aristomenes fr. 1 Kock (and K.-A.).
[9] Sophron fr. 30 Kaibel, now 29 K.-A.
[10] Tragica adespota fr. 442 Nauck.
Keywords: comedy; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; poetry; religion; tragedy; women; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 15 March 2001@01:40:12.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes; added keyword) on 15 March 2001@02:41:19.
David Whitehead (x-ref; cosmetics) on 24 November 2006@08:49:29.
David Whitehead (tweaking) on 5 November 2013@05:34:08.
David Whitehead (updated n.9) on 21 December 2014@11:47:07.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 21 December 2014@22:20:02.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 22 December 2014@07:56:24.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 23 December 2014@04:49:15.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 23 December 2014@09:12:48.
David Whitehead (another) on 2 January 2015@11:13:49.
David Whitehead (coding) on 30 May 2016@08:14:54.


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