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Headword: Παραστάται
Adler number: pi,444
Translated headword: comrades, those standing alongside
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] those equally ranked of [= in] the files, front-rank-men and rear-rank-men; [so called] because of standing alongside one another.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the verb] to stand alongside, [meaning] fighting together. Aristophanes in Plutus [writes]: "so that with us the gods are standing alongside, albeit being [sc. allied] with women."[2]
Also [sc. attested in the singular] parastates ["one who stands alongside"]. Arrian [writes]: "the order to them was that, were anyone swimming to touch bottom, he would bide time in the water for one who will come to be standing alongside with him."[3]
And Eunapius [writes]: "He ordered them to proceed positioned far apart from each other, so that their weapons would not make a noise, neither being squeezed against [one's] neighbor nor, because of the press, being [made to] crash around the bearer"[4]
Also, "more desperately courageous, they survived the danger."[5]
Also, "[they] having chosen refuge in death by fighting gallantly."[6] Meaning [having chosen] initiative, courage.[7]
And elsewhere: "[Blanno] spoke in a manner comradely and at the same time candidly."[8]
Also [sc. attested is] an adverb, παραστατικῶς . "He wrote sharply and boldly, taking in vain the names of alastors and blood-avengers throughout the letter."[9]
Greek Original:
Παραστάται: οἱ ὁμόζυγοι τῶν λόχων πρωτοστάται καὶ ἐπιστάται: διὰ τὸ παρ' ἀλλήλοις ἵστασθαι. καὶ Παραστατεῖν, τὸ συμμαχεῖν. Ἀριστοφάνης Πλούτῳ: ὥσθ' ἡμῖν θεοὺς παραστατεῖν καίπερ γυναιξὶν οὔσαις. καὶ Παραστάτης. Ἀρριανός: πρόσταγμα σφίσιν ἦν, ὅπως τις ἐκνηξάμενος σταίη, ἐν τῷ ὕδατι προσμένειν τὸν παραστάτην οἱ ἐσόμενον. καὶ Εὐνάπιος: πολὺ διεστῶτας ἀλλήλων χωρεῖν ἐκέλευεν, ὅπως μὴ δουποίη τὰ ὅπλα μήτε τῷ παραστάτῃ θλιβόμενα μήτε τῷ φέροντι διὰ τὸν συνωθισμὸν περικτυπούμενα. καί, παραστατικώτερον τὸν κίνδυνον ὑπέμειναν. καὶ λαβόντες παράστασιν εἰς τὸ μαχομένους γενναίως ἀποθανεῖν. ἀντὶ τοῦ ὁρμήν, τόλμαν. καὶ αὖθις: διελέχθη παραστατικῶς ἅμα καὶ παρρησιαζόμενος. καὶ ἐπίρρημα Παραστατικῶς. ὁ δὲ ἔγραψε πικρῶς καὶ παραστατικῶς, ἀλάστορας ἀποκαλῶν καὶ παλαμναίους διὰ τῆς ἐπιστολῆς.
Notes:
The headword is the masculine nominative (and vocative) plural of the noun παραστάτης , one who stands by; see generally LSJ s.v. It derives from the verb παραστατέω (I stand alongside); see LSJ s.v.
[1] Quoted closely from Asclepiodotus, Tactica 2.4. The Onomasticon Tacticon at the end of the Suda repeats the passage; cf. Kochly and Rustow, pp. 220-1 and Aelian, Tactica 6.2.
[2] The Suda incorrectly locates the quotation in Aristophanes' Wealth; as Adler notes, the quoted passage is from Thesmophoriazusae 369-371 (web address 1), with scholion.
[3] Arrian, Indica 24.6 (Roos, p. 43). The passage describes the amphibious attack-strategy orchestrated by Nearchus (OCD(4) s.v., nu 117), under Alexander the Great (alpha 1121 and OCD(4) s.v.), against native defenders at the mouth of the Tomerus River (probably the R. Hingol in present-day Pakistan). When the warriors assembling in shallow water were able to form three-deep phalanxes, they charged the shore and overwhelmed the defenders; cf. Arrian, Indica 24.6-8 (Roos, pp. 43-4).
[4] Eunapius fr.51 FHG (4.36); Blockley, Eunapius fr. 45.1.
[5] Diodorus Siculus 20.11.5 (illustrating a comparative adjective cognate with the headword).
[6] Quotation unidentifiable. παράστασιν is the accusative singular of the feminine noun παράστασις (a putting aside, banishing), and, unlike the headword, it derives from παρίστημι ; see LSJ s.v.
[7] For ὁρμήν , accusative singular of ὁρμή , cf. pi 442.
[8] Diodorus Siculus 32.6.3; cf. Constantine Porphyrogenitus, Excerpta de legationibus 404.31-2.
[9] Polybius fr. 98 Büttner-Wobst; cf. alpha 1082. Büttner-Wobst notes that this fragment was attributed to Polybius by Casaubon, accepted by Ursinus, but deemed atypical of Polybian style by Dindorf (p. 528).
References:
H. Kochly and W. Rustow, Griechische Kriegsschriftsteller, vol. 2, part 2, Osnabruck: Biblio Verlag, 1969
A.G. Roos, ed., Flavivs Arrianvs: Scripta Minora et Fragmenta, vol. II, Teubner: Leipzig, 1967
R.C. Blockley, The Fragmentary Classicising Historians of the Later Roman Empire: Eunapius, Olympiodorus, Priscus and Malchus, vol. II, Liverpool: Francis Cairns, 1983
T. Büttner-Wobst, ed., Polybii Historiae, vol. IV, Teubner: Leipzig, 1904
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; mythology; religion; women
Translated by: Ronald Allen on 6 April 2008@02:12:47.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified aspects of tr; tweaks and cosmetics) on 6 April 2008@06:30:57.
David Whitehead (tweaking) on 5 September 2013@07:00:39.
David Whitehead on 10 August 2014@04:12:57.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 December 2014@23:57:37.
Catharine Roth on 5 December 2014@23:58:57.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 19 December 2014@01:17:16.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 5 February 2015@00:33:16.
Aaron Baker (Modified translation of Eunapius fragment; tweaking of Blockley cite.) on 1 June 2015@22:26:11.
Ronald Allen (added to bibliography, supplemented n.9) on 5 May 2018@17:50:34.

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