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Headword: Φοβερός
Adler number: phi,556
Translated headword: fearful
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] he who is afraid,[1] in Thucydides[2] and Pherecrates.[3]
Also in Arrian: "but becoming fearful, they were taking flight, having abandoned the cities."[4] And elsewhere Arrian [sc. writes]: "when the enemy had attacked, being fearful and helpless, without anything useful for their common cause, they were perishing."[5]
Φοβερός also [sc. means] he who is intimidating.[6] "Already being celebrated and intimidating, Hannibal was advancing upon Tyrrhenia."[7]
Greek Original:
Φοβερός: ὁ φοβούμενος, παρὰ Θουκυδίδῃ καὶ Φερεκράτει. καὶ παρὰ Ἀρριανῷ: οἱ δὲ φοβεροὶ γινόμενοι ἔφευγον, ἀπολιπόντες τὰς πόλεις. καὶ αὖθις Ἀρριανός: οἱ δὲ ἐμβεβληκότων τῶν πολεμίων φοβεροὶ καὶ ἀμήχανοι ἄνευ τοῦ ἐς τὸ κοινὸν ὠφελίμου ἀπώλλυντο. Φοβερὸς καὶ ὁ καταπληκτικός. Ἀννίβας δὲ λαμπρὸς ἤδη καὶ φοβερὸς ὢν ἤλαυνεν ἐπὶ τὴν Τυρρηνίαν.
Notes:
The headword is an adjective in the paradigmatic masculine nominative singular; cf. phi 555, beta 347 (gloss), gamma 396 (gloss), delta 324 (gloss), pi 81 (gloss), and see generally LSJ s.v.
[1] With an article in attributive position (Smyth, 1156), the glossing participle is the present middle/passive participle, masculine nominative singular, of the contract verb φοβέω , I put to flight; see generally LSJ s.v. The headword is identically glossed in Photius' Lexicon (phi232 Theodoridis, also with the Thucydides and Pherecrates citations: see below); cf. Etymologicum Magnum 797.54 and 541.51 (Kallierges).
[2] Thucydides 2.3.4, which actually has the comparative form of the headword adjective in the masculine nominative (and vocative) plural, φοβερώτεροι : web address 1. He is narrating the opening episode (431 BCE) of the Peloponnesian war, when citizens of Plataia (Plataea, allied with Athens, in southern Boeotia: Barrington Atlas map 55 grid E4; cf. pi 1700) rallied against a small occupying force of Thebans under cover of pre-dawn darkness, when the latter would presumably be surprised, more fearful, and easily overcome; cf. Aelius Dionysius Ἀττικὰ ὀνόματα s.v. πιθανούς , and pi 1574 (gloss).
[3] Pherecrates fr. 245 Kock (279 K.-A.), context-less.
[4] Arrian, Anabasis 5.24.7 (Roos, Alexandri Anabasis, p. 276). He is describing the flight of inhabitants from neighboring cities after Alexander's capture (326 BCE) of Sangala (Sagala, Sakala; present-day Sialkot, in north-eastern Punjab, Pakistan; Barrington Atlas map 6 grid C3); de Boor, p. 28. In her critical apparatus Adler notes that ms G and Arrian both transmit the aorist participle γενόμενοι : having taken fright; that ms G reads ἔφυγον (aorist), they fled; and that ms V reads ἀπολειπόντες (present tense, as opposed to the Suda's aorist): leaving the cities.
[5] Arrian, Parthica fr. 27 (Roos, Scripta Minora et Fragmenta, p. 290).
[6] An additional gloss on the headword (drawing attention to its opposite sense: see generally LSJ s.v.), perhaps extracted from the following quotation as transmitted (so Adler) by ms G. Alternatively, mss AVM read καταπληκτικός for the headword in the quotation.
[7] Adler tentatively (and for no discernible reason) attributed this quotation to Diodorus Siculus, but latterly Favuzzi [see under alpha 1596] 202 finds vocabulary-based grounds for ascribing it to John of Antioch. Tyrrhenia is ancient Etruria, occupying the central-western region of the Italian peninsula, north of Latium and south of Liguria; cf. tau 837, tau 1195, and Barrington Atlas map 42 grids B1-3).
References:
H.W. Smyth, Greek Grammar, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1956
A.G. Roos, ed., Alexandri Anabasis, vol. I, Teubner: Leipzig, 1967
C. de Boor, 'Suidas und die Konstantinsche Exzerptsammlung II,' Byzantinische Zeitschrift, vol. 23, 1914-1919, pp. 1-127
A.G. Roos, ed., Flavivs Arrianvs: Scripta Minora et Fragmenta, vol. II, Teubner: Leipzig, 1967
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; geography; historiography; history; military affairs
Translated by: Ronald Allen on 30 March 2012@02:33:53.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 30 March 2012@04:13:01.
Catharine Roth (tweaks) on 30 March 2012@14:50:06.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 30 March 2012@19:44:45.
David Whitehead (expanded and modified n.7) on 4 June 2013@04:27:07.
David Whitehead (tweaking) on 15 December 2013@04:55:49.
David Whitehead (coding) on 31 May 2016@05:55:42.

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