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Headword: Phoberos
Adler number: phi,556
Translated headword: fearful
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] he who is afraid,[1] in Thucydides[2] and Pherecrates.[3]
Also in Arrian: "but becoming fearful, they were taking flight, having abandoned the cities."[4] And elsewhere Arrian [sc. writes]: "when the enemy had attacked, being fearful and helpless, without anything useful for their common cause, they were perishing."[5]
*fobero/s also [sc. means] he who is intimidating.[6] "Already being celebrated and intimidating, Hannibal was advancing upon Tyrrhenia."[7]
Greek Original:
Phoberos: ho phoboumenos, para Thoukudidêi kai Pherekratei. kai para Arrianôi: hoi de phoberoi ginomenoi epheugon, apolipontes tas poleis. kai authis Arrianos: hoi de embeblêkotôn tôn polemiôn phoberoi kai amêchanoi aneu tou es to koinon ôphelimou apôllunto. Phoberos kai ho kataplêktikos. Annibas de lampros êdê kai phoberos ôn êlaunen epi tên Turrênian.
The headword is an adjective in the paradigmatic masculine nominative singular; cf. phi 555, beta 347 (gloss), gamma 396 (gloss), delta 324 (gloss), pi 81 (gloss), and see generally LSJ s.v.
[1] With an article in attributive position (Smyth, 1156), the glossing participle is the present middle/passive participle, masculine nominative singular, of the contract verb fobe/w, I put to flight; see generally LSJ s.v. The headword is identically glossed in Photius' Lexicon (phi232 Theodoridis, also with the Thucydides and Pherecrates citations: see below); cf. Etymologicum Magnum 797.54 and 541.51 (Kallierges).
[2] Thucydides 2.3.4, which actually has the comparative form of the headword adjective in the masculine nominative (and vocative) plural, foberw/teroi: web address 1. He is narrating the opening episode (431 BCE) of the Peloponnesian war, when citizens of Plataia (Plataea, allied with Athens, in southern Boeotia: Barrington Atlas map 55 grid E4; cf. pi 1700) rallied against a small occupying force of Thebans under cover of pre-dawn darkness, when the latter would presumably be surprised, more fearful, and easily overcome; cf. Aelius Dionysius *)attika\ o)no/mata s.v. piqanou/s, and pi 1574 (gloss).
[3] Pherecrates fr. 245 Kock (279 K.-A.), context-less.
[4] Arrian, Anabasis 5.24.7 (Roos, Alexandri Anabasis, p. 276). He is describing the flight of inhabitants from neighboring cities after Alexander's capture (326 BCE) of Sangala (Sagala, Sakala; present-day Sialkot, in north-eastern Punjab, Pakistan; Barrington Atlas map 6 grid C3); de Boor, p. 28. In her critical apparatus Adler notes that ms G and Arrian both transmit the aorist participle geno/menoi: having taken fright; that ms G reads e)/fugon (aorist), they fled; and that ms V reads a)poleipo/ntes (present tense, as opposed to the Suda's aorist): leaving the cities.
[5] Arrian, Parthica fr. 27 (Roos, Scripta Minora et Fragmenta, p. 290).
[6] An additional gloss on the headword (drawing attention to its opposite sense: see generally LSJ s.v.), perhaps extracted from the following quotation as transmitted (so Adler) by ms G. Alternatively, mss AVM read kataplhktiko/s for the headword in the quotation.
[7] Adler tentatively (and for no discernible reason) attributed this quotation to Diodorus Siculus, but latterly Favuzzi [see under alpha 1596] 202 finds vocabulary-based grounds for ascribing it to John of Antioch. Tyrrhenia is ancient Etruria, occupying the central-western region of the Italian peninsula, north of Latium and south of Liguria; cf. tau 837, tau 1195, and Barrington Atlas map 42 grids B1-3).
H.W. Smyth, Greek Grammar, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1956
A.G. Roos, ed., Alexandri Anabasis, vol. I, Teubner: Leipzig, 1967
C. de Boor, 'Suidas und die Konstantinsche Exzerptsammlung II,' Byzantinische Zeitschrift, vol. 23, 1914-1919, pp. 1-127
A.G. Roos, ed., Flavivs Arrianvs: Scripta Minora et Fragmenta, vol. II, Teubner: Leipzig, 1967
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; geography; historiography; history; military affairs
Translated by: Ronald Allen on 30 March 2012@02:33:53.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 30 March 2012@04:13:01.
Catharine Roth (tweaks) on 30 March 2012@14:50:06.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 30 March 2012@19:44:45.
David Whitehead (expanded and modified n.7) on 4 June 2013@04:27:07.
David Whitehead (tweaking) on 15 December 2013@04:55:49.
David Whitehead (coding) on 31 May 2016@05:55:42.


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