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Headword: Οἶνος
Adler number: omicroniota,135
Translated headword: wine
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
It was named from Oineus: "Oineus having pressed it in hollow goblets called it wine."[1] Plato says that it is sense-supposing, because it fills our mind full of supposition.[2] Alternatively it is named from benefit [onesis]; Homer [says]: "You will benefit, if you drink."[3] And [he calls] food oneiata from it benefitting us. The poet of the Cypria says: "Surely, Menelaus, the gods made wine best for mortal men to scatter their sorrows."[4] The lines of Eubulus on wine: "For I mix only three kraters for the ones thinking well; one is the krater of health, which they drink from first; the second is of love and pleasure; the third is of sleep; drinking from which those who are called wise walk home; the fourth is no longer ours, but is of hubris; the fifth is of shouting; the sixth is of revel; the seventh is of black eyes, the eighth is of a summoner; the ninth is of bile; the tenth is of madness; so that it makes them throw it out. For much wine poured into one vessel upsets the ones who drank it."[5] And Epicharmus [says]: "out of sacrifice comes feast, and out of feast, drink. [...] Out of drink, revelling; out of revelling, swinishness, and out of swinishness a lawsuit; [...] out of a conviction [sc. in court], chains and gangrene and fines."[6] And Panyassis [says]: "For wine is a benefit equal to fire for men on Earth, a good thing keeping away the bad, a companion to all sorrow."[7]
"There was also barley wine in kraters; in it there was also barley itself level with the brim."[8]
Greek Original:
Οἶνος: ὠνομάσθη ἀπὸ Οἰνέως: Οἰνεὺς δ' ἐν κοίλοισιν ἀποθλίψας δεπάεσσιν οἶνον ἔκλησε. Πλάτων δὲ οἰόνουν αὐτόν φησιν, διὰ τὸ οἰήσεως τὸν νοῦν ἡμῶν ἐμπιπλᾶν: ἢ ἀπὸ τῆς ὀνήσεως: Ὅμηρος: ὀνήσεαι, αἴκε πίησθα. καὶ τὰ βρώματα ὀνείατα ἀπὸ τοῦ ὀνίσκειν ἡμᾶς. ὁ δὲ Κύπριος ποιητής φησιν: οἶνόν τοι, Μενέλαε, θεοὶ ποίησαν ἄριστον θνητοῖς ἀνθρώποισιν ἀποσκεδάσαι μελεδῶνας. Εὐβούλου στίχοι εἰς οἶνον: τρεῖς γὰρ μόνους κρατῆρας ἐγκεραννύω τοῖς εὖ φρονοῦσι: τὸν μὲν ὑγείας ἕνα, ὃν πρῶτον ἐκπίνουσι: τὸν δὲ δεύτερον ἔρωτος ἡδονῆς τε: τὸν τρίτον δ' ὕπνου: ὃν ἐκπιόντες οἱ σοφοὶ κεκλημένοι οἴκαδε βαδίζουσιν: ὁ δὲ τέταρτος οὐκέτι ἡμέτερός ἐστιν, ἀλλ' ὕβρεως: ὁ δὲ πέμπτος βοῆς: ἕκτος δὲ κώμων: ἕβδομος δ' ὑπωπίων: ὄγδοος κλήτορος: ὁ δ' ἔνατος χολῆς: δέκατος δὲ μανίας: ὥς τ' ἐκβάλλειν ποιεῖ. πολὺς γὰρ εἰς ἓν ἀγγεῖον χυθεὶς ὑποσκελίζει τοὺς πεπωκότας. καὶ Ἐπίχαρμος: ἐκ μὲν θυσίας θοίνη, ἐκ δὲ θοίνης πόσις ἐγένετο. ἐκ πόσιος κῶμος: ἐκ κώμου θυανία, ἐκ δὲ θυανίας δίκη: ἐκ δὲ καταδίκης πέδαι τε καὶ σφάκελος καὶ ζημία. καὶ Πανύασσις: οἶνος γὰρ πυρὶ ἶσον ἐπιχθονίοισιν ὄνειαρ, ἐσθλὸν δ' ἀλεξίκακον, πάσῃ συνοπηδὸν ἀνίῃ. ἦν δὲ καὶ οἶνος κρίθινος ἐν κρατῆρσιν: ἐνῆσαν δὲ καὶ αὐταὶ αἱ κριθαὶ ἰσοχειλεῖς.
Notes:
With the exception of the final paragraph (for which see n.8 below) this material comes from Athenaeus, Deipnosophists 2.35A-37A (2.1-4 Kaibel).
[1] Nicander of Colophon (nu 374) fr.86 Schneider.
[2] Plato, Cratylus 406C, with wordplay on the noun oinos and the adjective oionous.
[3] Homer, Iliad 7.260.
[4] Cypria fr. 17.1-2 Allen.
[5] Eubulus fr. 94 Kock (now 93 Kassel-Austin).
[6] An abridgement of Epicharmus fr. 148 Kaibel (now 146 Kassel-Austin). "Gangrene" should be "stocks" (sphalos rather than sphakelos).
[7] Panyassis fr. 12.13-13 Matthews.
[8] Xenophon, Anabasis 4.5.26; cf. iota 674.
Keywords: aetiology; comedy; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; ethics; food; historiography; philosophy; poetry
Translated by: Jennifer Brown on 1 May 2002@20:58:11.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation; added notes; augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 2 May 2002@04:37:45.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks) on 11 August 2011@08:03:28.
David Whitehead (tweaking) on 7 August 2013@06:36:37.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 4 November 2014@22:56:36.
David Whitehead (updated n.6) on 21 December 2014@11:06:55.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 30 December 2014@08:15:22.

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