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Headword: Οὗ
Adler number: omicron,761
Translated headword: of which
Vetting Status: high
[Note] that "the for the sake of which" is spoken of in two ways:[1] both the [aim] of which, and the [beneficiary] for which.[2] For the soul, he says, is an end[3] as [aim] of which, but the animal is [an end] as [beneficiary] for which. For nature makes the organic body for the sake of the soul, so that the soul uses it, since it is an end in the sense of [aim] of which, but the ensouled thing[4] [is an end] in the sense of [beneficiary] for which. For nature makes all things so that the activity is unimpeded for the animal. Accordingly, it is either as was stated -- the [aim] of which and the [beneficiary] for which -- or it is in vain. On the one hand, it is for the sake of the the cosmic creation and the eternal (for he refers everything to this); on the other hand, it is for [the benefit] of the soul.[5] For this is provided for in using the organs. Wherefore it is more [important] and more true.
Greek Original:
Οὗ: ὅτι δισσῶς τὸ οὗ ἕνεκα λεγομένου, τοῦ τε οὗ καὶ τοῦ ᾧ: ἡ μὲν γὰρ ψυχή, φησί, τέλος ὡς οὗ, τὸ δὲ ζῷον ὡς ᾧ. ποιεῖ γὰρ τὸ ὀργανικὸν σῶμα ἡ φύσις τῆς μὲν ψυχῆς ἕνεκα, ἵνα χρῆται αὐτῷ ὡς τέλος ἡ ψυχὴ ὡς οὗ, τέλος δὲ ὡς ᾧ τὸ ἔμψυχον: ὥστε γὰρ ἀνεμποδίστους εἶναι τῷ ζῴῳ τὰς ἐνεργείας, πάντα ποιεῖ ἡ φύσις. ἢ τοίνυν οὕτως τὸ οὗ καὶ τὸ ᾧ ἢ ἄλλως. οὗ μὲν ἕνεκα τῆς κοσμο- ποιί̈ας, καὶ τῆς ἀϊδιότητος: τούτου γὰρ πάντα ἐφίεται: ᾧ δὲ τῇ ψυχῇ: ταύτῃ γὰρ παρασκευάζει εἰς χρῆσιν τὸ ὄργανον: ὅπερ καὶ μᾶλλόν ἐστιν ἀληθέστερον.
[1] i.e. the expression is ambiguous or equivocal. The source, here and for the entry as a whole, is John Philoponus, On Aristotle's anima [On the Soul] 15.274.15-23 Hayduck, commenting on De anima 2.4 = 415b15ff. Aristotle makes the distinction 5 times (De anima 415b2-3 & b20-1; Physics 194a35-6; Metaphysics 1072b2-3; Eudemian Ethics 1249b15), though not always with reference to the soul.
[2] e.g. a hand exists both for the aim of grasping (a piece of bread, say), and for the benefit of the creature with the hand (who gets to eat the piece of bread). Again, a knife exists both for the sake of cutting, and for benefiting the person who uses it to cut something.
[3] cf. τέλος at tau 282, which discusses the same distinction.
[4] i.e. the living thing, like an animal.
[5] Philoponus interprets Aristotle as saying that the vegetative soul (which controls both nutrition and reproduction) exists both for the sake of the organism that uses food, and for the reproduction of the species, which gives that form of life a kind of eternal existence.
K. Gaiser, "Das zweifache Telos bei Aristoteles" in Naturphilosophie bei Aristoteles und Theophrast. 4 Symposium Aristotelicum (I. During ed.). Heidelberg, 1969, 97-113
A. Graeser, "Aristoteles' Schrift 'Uber die Philosophie' und die zweifache Bedeutung der 'causa finalis'", Museum Helveticum 29 (1972) 44-61
W. Kullmann, "Different concepts of the Final Cause in Aristotle", in Aristotle on Nature and Living Things: Philosophical and historical studies presented to David M. Balme on his seventieth birthday (A. Gotthelf, ed.). Pittsburgh and Bristol, 1985, 169-75
Keywords: definition; philosophy
Translated by: Monte Johnson on 2 October 2002@14:14:29.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 17 February 2003@07:24:21.
Marcelo Boeri (Corrected the Greek in note 3.) on 28 June 2003@18:20:16.
David Whitehead (cosmetics; raised status) on 30 July 2013@08:51:30.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 1 February 2015@23:21:28.


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