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Headword: Ὁπλή
Adler number: omicron,464
Translated headword: hoof
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[Meaning] the round foot of cattle, such as oxen, sheep and the rest which have small nails on the backs of their feet.[1]
But properly of horses. Aristophanes spoke of a 'hoof' on pigs.[2] And Simonides [says]: "he moved the hooves of his back feet."[3] And Hesiod [applies the word] to hooves of cattle.[4] And on the contrary [he also does so] to a horse: "touching with (cloven) hooves".[5]
Greek Original:
Ὁπλή: ὁ κυκλοειδὴς ποῦς τῶν κτηνῶν, οἷον βοῶν, προβάτων καὶ τῶν λοιπῶν τῶν ἐχόντων μικροὺς ὄνυχας ἐν τοῖς τῶν ποδῶν ὀπισθίοις. κυρίως δὲ ἐπὶ ἵππων. Ἀριστοφάνης δὲ ἐπὶ τῶν χοίρων ὁπλὴν εἴρηκε. καὶ Σιμωνίδης: ὁπλὰς ἐκίνει τῶν ὀπισθίων ποδῶν. καὶ Ἡσίοδος ἐπὶ βοῶν ὁπλάς. καὶ τὸ ἐναντίον ἐπὶ ἵππου: νύσσοντες χηλῇσιν.
Notes:
See already omicron 463 (plural). This word is used primarily of the solid hoof of a horse, distinct from the cloven hoof χηλή of cattle and sheep (Galen, De usu partium 3.4), but the words are often confused. Hesiod in the examples here took them in the opposite sense. Aristotle is responsible for comparing them with human nails and bird's claws. This entry has an unintelligible connection to the small rear toes on some animals, apparently a misunderstanding of Semonides' phrase 'his hind feet'.
[1] Likewise or similarly in other lexica; references at Photius omicron406 Theodoridis.
[2] Aristophanes, Acharnians 740 (but the context is one of comic disguise and the error may be deliberate).
[3] Fragment 28 of the iambic poet Semonides of Amorgos, often known in antiquity as Simonides (sigma 446).
[4] Hesiod, Works and Days 489.
[5] Hesiod, Shield (Aspis) 62: χηλαί .
Keywords: comedy; definition; medicine; poetry; zoology
Translated by: Robert Dyer on 17 May 2000@16:47:12.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Made slight alteration in wording; raised status.) on 20 August 2000@00:59:16.
David Whitehead (added keywords; cosmetics) on 12 September 2002@05:46:15.
David Whitehead (another keyword; tweaks and cosmetics) on 28 October 2009@10:46:32.
David Whitehead (another note; cosmetics) on 5 July 2013@07:02:24.
David Whitehead (codings) on 20 May 2016@03:29:04.

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