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Headword: Ὅπερ
Adler number: omicron,446
Translated headword: what precisely [is]
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Properly speaking this [expression] 'what precisely is' is indicative, and if [the expression 'what precisely is'][1] is added to something else, it means 'being that in the strict sense'. For instance, what precisely/essentially [is] a man [means] a man in the strict sense; and 'what precisely is' [means what is in the strict sense] and 'what precisely is good' [means] what is good in the strict sense.[2] And indeed, among the things that are predicated of another thing, if [the expression] 'what precisely [is]' is added to something else, [that] means that it is predicated of that in a strict sense; and [it means] that in a strict sense the substance [?] is in that and is that.
Greek Original:
Ὅπερ: τοῦτο τὸ ὅπερ τοῦ κυρίως ἐστὶ δηλωτικόν, καὶ ᾧ ἐὰν προστεθῇ, τὸ κυρίως ἐκεῖνο εἶναι σημαίνει: οἷον ὅπερ ἄνθρωπος, ὁ κυρίως ἄνθρωπος: καὶ ὅπερ ὂν καὶ ὅπερ ἀγαθὸν τὸ κυρίως, ἀγαθόν. καὶ τῶν κατηγορουμένων δὴ κατ' ἄλλου, ᾧ ἂν τὸ ὅπερ προστεθῇ, κυρίως ἐκείνου κατηγορεῖσθαι σημαίνει. καὶ τὸ εἶναι τὸ ὑποκείμενον κυρίως ἐν τούτῳ τε καὶ τοῦτο.
Notes:
This entry is taken (with some important variations) from Alexander of Aphrodisias, Commentaries on Aristotle's Topica 227.7-12. Alexander is commenting here on Topica 116a23ff., where it is argued that 'what precisely (or essentially) is' is more desirable than what does not come within the genus; for instance, justice is more desirable than a just man, or a white man is not precisely what color is (Topica 116a26-27).
[1] The expression ὅπερ , which clarifies the text, appears in Alexander 227.7-8, and reappears below in this entry.
[2] The Suda omits some words, obscuring the sense. The reading given by Wallies (the editor of Alexander's treatise: Berlin, 1891) is: ὅπερ ὄν τὸ κυρίως ὄν. ὅπερ ἀγαθὸν τὸ κυρίως ἀγαθόν .
Keywords: definition; philosophy
Translated by: Marcelo Boeri on 10 July 2003@11:06:41.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 11 July 2003@03:57:34.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 13 May 2008@21:39:01.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 14 May 2008@11:43:43.
David Whitehead (more adjustments) on 5 July 2013@03:19:44.
David Whitehead (codings) on 20 May 2016@03:20:59.

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