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Headword: *kalo\n pra=gma
Adler number: kappa,246
Translated headword: fine thing, fine fact
Vetting Status: high
He[sic] calls [any good 'fine'] which is commensurate with its own utility. [...] The kinds of good [are] four: what is just, what is brave, what is well-ordered, what is scientific;[1] for in such things fine actions can be completed. Analogously [there are] also four kinds of shameful: what is unjust, what is cowardly, what is not well-ordered, what is foolish. It is said that what is fine makes worth praising those people having it, [or][2] that the good is worth praising; but in another sense [it signifies] what is naturally good regarding its proper function; and what provides ornament, such as when we say 'only the wise person is good and fine'. But they say that only the fine is good,[3] and this is virtue and what partakes in virtue, which precisely is the same as [saying that] every good is fine, and what is fine is equivalent to the good. It seems[4] that all goods are equal and every good is worth choosing and does not admit either diminution or increase.
Beautiful/fine is what is pleasant through sight or through hearing.[5]
Greek Original:
*kalo\n pra=gma: o(/ti kalei= pro\s th\n e(autou= xrei/an summe/trws e)/xon. ei)/dh de\ tou= kalou= te/ssara: di/kaion, a)ndrei=on, ko/smion, e)pisthmoniko/n: e)n ga\r toi=sde ta\s kala\s pra/ceis suntelei=sqai. a)na/logon de\ kai\ tou= ai)sxrou= ei)/dh te/ssara: a)/dikon, deilo/n, a)/kosmon, a)/fron. le/getai kalo\n to\ e)painetou\s parexo/menon tou\s e)/xontas a)gaqo\n e)pai/nou a)/cion: e(te/rws to\ eu)= pefuke/nai pro\s to\ i)/dion e)/rgon: kai\ to\ e)pikosmou=n, o(/tan le/gwmen, mo/non to\n sofo\n a)gaqo\n kai\ kalo\n ei)=nai. le/gousi de\ mo/non to\ kalo\n a)gaqo\n ei)=nai. ei)=nai de\ tou=to a)reth\n kai\ to\ mete/xon a)reth=s, o(/per e)sti\n i)/son tw=| pa=n a)gaqo\n kalo\n ei)=nai, kai\ to\ i)sodu/namon to\ kalo\n tw=| a)gaqw=|. dokei= de\ pa/nta ta\ a)gaqa\ i)/sa ei)=nai kai\ pa=n a)gaqo\n e)p' a)/kron ai(reto\n kai\ mh/te a)/nesin mh/te e)pi/tasin e)pide/xesqai. kalo\n de/ e)sti to\ di' o)/yews h)\ di' a)koh=s h(du/.
Apart from the final sentence -- on which see n. 5 below -- this entry follows and abridges Diogenes Laertius 7.99-101 (in the context of a Stoic doxography); cf. already kappa 245.
[1] cf. kappa 252, where these four kinds have been reduced to three.
[2] Reading the h)\ supplied in Diogenes Laertius 7.100, which makes better sense.
[3] This thesis is attributed to the Stoics Hecato and Chrysippus (Diogenes Laertius 7. 101); it is repeated in many other Stoic sources (see Cicero, De finibus 3.11; Paradoxa Stoicorum 1. Plutarch, On Stoic Self-contradictions 1038D, 1039C). The thesis that only the wise person is good and fine is Stoic in character too.
[4] sc. to the Stoics.
[5] Quotation not identified by Adler, but it is Aristotle, Topics 146a22.
Keywords: definition; ethics; philosophy
Translated by: Marcelo Boeri on 11 December 2003@14:26:54.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified end of translation, and other touches; added x-ref; cosmetics) on 12 December 2003@03:48:02.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 November 2005@06:27:31.
David Whitehead (another note) on 25 January 2013@05:40:52.
David Whitehead (coding) on 29 April 2016@04:40:32.
Catharine Roth (tweaked translation) on 13 April 2019@23:03:06.


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