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Headword: Κρίβανον
Adler number: kappa,2413
Translated headword: baking-oven
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
The Athenians use this term for a "furnace of barley" [κριθῶν βαῦνος ), that is an oven.[1]
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] "oven loaf", [meaning] one baked in an oven. [The noun] kribanos is based on kri ["barley"] and baunos ["furnace"]; that is an oven. And Aristophanes [says]:[2] "then he[3] entertained us, and served us oven-baked oxen."[4]
Arrian [says]:[5] "and they[6] brought guest-gifts, tunny baked in ovens."
Greek Original:
Κρίβανον: οἱ Ἀττικοὶ λέγουσι κριθῶν βαῦνον, τουτέστι κάμινον. καὶ Ἄρτος κριβανίτης, ὁ ἐν κριβάνῳ ὠπτημένος. κρίβανος δὲ παρὰ τὸ κρῖ καὶ τὸ βαῦνος: ὅ ἐστι κάμινος. καὶ Ἀριστοφάνης: εἶτα ἐξένιζε: παρετίθει δ' ἡμῖν βοῦς κριβανίτας. Ἀρριανός: οἱ δὲ ξένια ἔφερον, θύννους ἐν κριβάνοισιν ὀπτούς.
Notes:
This somewhat repetitive entry is based on the scholia to Aristophanes, Acharnians 86 and Wealth [Plutus] 765. For the headword see also kappa 2414.
[1] Likewise or similarly in other lexica (from Aelius Dionysius); see the references at Photius kappa1092 Theodoridis. This absurd etymology ignores the fact that bread was normally baked only from wheat, not from barley.
[2] Aristophanes, Acharnians 85-7 (telescoped, see below).
[3] The King of Persia; the speaker is the leader of an Athenian embassy to him, reporting back to the Assembly on his mission.
[4] In the Aristophanic text, the ambassador says that the King served "whole oxen from the κρίβανος " and Dikaiopolis, who has been keeping up a running commentary of asides on the Assembly proceedings, remarks "And who has ever seen oven-baked (κριβανίτας ) oxen?" The lexicographer has thus run two speeches into one, omitting the last word of line 85 and the whole of line 86.
[5] Arrian, Indika 28.1; more fully at pi 957.
[6] The Ichthyophagoi [Fish-Eaters] of Kyiza, a township on the shore of the Indian Ocean visited by the fleet of Alexander's admiral Nearchus, to whom this gift was offered. This, according to Arrian, was the first time that any Ichthyophagite community had been found that cooked its food -- and significantly, they baked it in the same way that Greeks baked bread; for, in a direct inversion of Greek practice, they treated fish as their staple and cereals as their relish (ὄψον ) (Indika 28.8-9).
Reference:
Davidson, James N. Courtesans and Fishcakes: The Consuming Passions of Classical Athens. London: HarperCollins, 1997. 304-5.
Keywords: botany; comedy; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; ethics; food; geography; historiography; history; zoology
Translated by: Alan Sommerstein on 21 July 2003@09:58:53.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added x-ref and keyword; cosmetics) on 21 July 2003@10:19:38.
David Whitehead (another x-ref) on 21 July 2003@10:20:59.
David Whitehead (expanded n.1; more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 18 March 2013@04:14:29.
Catharine Roth (tweaked punctuation) on 18 March 2013@21:43:05.

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