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Headword: *kle/arxos
Adler number: kappa,1714
Translated headword: Klearchos, Clearchus
Vetting Status: high
Of Sol[o]i. He wrote various things.[1]
Also Klearchos of Pontus.[2] He arrived in Athens as a young man to hear Plato.[3] Declaring a thirst for philosophy and associating with her [i.e. Philosophy] for a short time (for he was hateful to the gods) this Klearchos saw in a dream a certain woman saying to him "Begone from the Academy and flee philosophy; it is not right for you to enjoy her benefits, for she looks on you as the most hateful [of men]".[4] After he heard these words he returned to (?)the military life.[5] Overflowing with malice he sailed from his home and, being shunned as a fugitive, he went to Mithridates and encamping at his court sided with him.[6] Not long after, however, the people of Heraclea fell into serious factional conflict. Then, wishing to return to amity and become reconciled, they chose Clearchus ephor to return them to harmony.[7] But after he was invited in [by the people of Heraclea], having found lodgings at one of the stations along the road he saw in a dream the old tyrant of Heraclea, whose name was Euopion, saying to him that he should make himself tyrant of the country. And [Euopion] enjoined him to be on his guard against philosophy. Thus he was also reminded by these [words] of the warning [he received] in Athens. Then having attained power [with the assistance] of the common people he was both the cruelest [of tyrants] and being totally inflamed with irresistible arrogance he was disdainful [of the fact] that he was still a man.[8] He demanded that he receive obeisance and be honoured with the honours due to the Olympian gods and he clothed himself in garments customary to the gods and [had himself represented] with statues fitting for them. He named his son Ceraunus.[9] In the first instance Divine Justice slew him and then the hand of Chion. This man was, then, an associate of Plato and his disciple for a time, and drawing his hatred of tyranny from that man [i.e. Plato] he liberated his country. Leonides and Antitheus, both men being philosophers also, are said to have joined with him in this fine deed.[10] He was punished in this way, it is said, in return for the [wicked deeds] he dared to commit.
Greek Original:
*kle/arxos, *soleu/s: e)/graye dia/fora. kai\ *kle/arxos o( *pontiko/s, ne/os w)\n ei)s *)aqh/nas a)fi/keto a)kou=sai *pla/twnos. kai\ le/gwn filosofi/as diyh=n, o)li/ga oi( suggeno/menos [h)=n ga\r qeoi=s e)xqro/s] o)/nar o(ra=| o(/de o( *kle/arxos gunai=ka/ tina, le/gousan pro\s au)to/n: a)/piqi th=s *)akadhmi/as kai\ feu=ge filosofi/an: ou) ga/r soi qe/mis e)paure/sqai au)th=s: o(ra=| ga\r pro\s se\ e)/xqiston. w(=n a)kou/sas e)pa/neisin ei)s th\n stratei/an. fqo/nw| de\ e)piklusqei\s e)kplei= th=s oi)/koqen kai\ fuga\s a)lw/- menos e)/rxetai pro\s *miqrida/thn kai\ stratopedeuo/menos par' au)tw=| e)ph|nei=to. ou) mh\n meta\ makro\n e)kpi/ptousin oi( *(hraklew=tai ei)s sta/sin barei=an: ei)=ta e)panelqei=n ei)s fili/an kai\ sumba/seis boulo/menoi proairou=ntai e)/foron th=s au)=qis o(monoi/as to\n *kle/arxon. e)peidh\ de\ klhto\s parege/neto, katalu/sas e)/n tini tw=n staqmw=n tw=n dia\ th=s o(dou= o)/nar o(ra=| palaio\n *(hraklewtw=n tu/rannon, *eu)wpi/ona o)/noma, le/gonta au)tw=|, o(/ti dei= turannh=sai/ se th=s patri/dos. prose/tatte de\ kai\ ou(=tos filosofi/an fula/ttesqai au)to/n. u(pemnh/sqh kai\ tou/twn toi/nun e)k th=s prorrh/sews th=s *)aqh/nhsin. e)gkrath\s d' ou)=n tw=n koinw=n geno/menos w)mo/tato/s te h)=n kai\ ei)s u(peroyi/an e)cafqei\s a)/maxon, tou= me\n e)/ti a)/nqrwpos ei)=nai katefro/nei: proskunei=sqai de\ kai\ tai=s tw=n *)olumpi/wn gerai/resqai timai=s h)ci/ou kai\ stola\s h)/sqhto qeoi=s sunh/qeis kai\ toi=s a)ga/lmasi toi=s e)kei/nwn e)piprepou/sas: to/n te ui(o\n to\n e(autou= *kerauno\n e)ka/lesen. a)pe/kteine de\ au)to\n prw=ton me\n h( di/kh, ei)=ta de\ h( xei\r h( *xio/nidos: o(/sper ou)=n h)=n e(tai=ros *pla/twnos kai\ xro/non dih/kousen au)tou=, kai\ to\ misotu/rannon e)k th=s e)kei/nou e(sti/as spasa/menos h)leuqe/rwse th\n patri/da. koinwnw\ de\ oi( th=s kalh=s pra/cews gene/sqai le/gontai *lewni/dhs te kai\ *)anti/qeos, filoso/fw kai\ tw/de a)/ndre. o(/pws de\ e)/dwke di/kas a)nq' w(=n e)to/lmhsen, ei)/rhtai.
[1] The pupil of Aristotle. See C.B.R. Pelling, 'Clearchus(3)' in OCD(4) pp.329-30; W. Kroll, 'Klearchos (11) von Soli' in RE 11,1 cols.580-583.
[2] Lenschau gives his dates as 391/90-353/2. He ruled as tyrant of Heraclea 364/3-353/2. The following passage is Aelian fr. 89 Domingo-Forasté (86 Hercher); see already at epsilon 3955.
[3] Clearchus was also associated with Isocrates. See Isocrates Letters 7.12.
[4] At epsilon 1994 this ancedote is referred to Clearchus of Soli.
[5] So the transmitted text, stratei/an. Adler notes two suggested emendations by Hemsterhuys which might improve it: *Qra/ki/an 'to Thrace' and (her preference) *(Hraklei/an 'to Heraclea'; for the latter, cf. next note.
[6] Literally 'flooded by malice'. Clearchus had returned to Heraclea where he was worsted in a party political conflict that saw him go into exile. See Justin 16.4.4. He appears to have become a mercenary commander in the service of Mithridates. Hence he camped at the court (par' au)tw=|) of Mithridates at Cius. See H.W. Parke, Greek Mercenary Soldiers, Oxford 1933 [1970] 97-99.
[7] Ephors were magistrates at Heraclea Pontica as well as (e.g.) Sparta.
[8] cf. alpha 1514 (end).
[9] That is, 'Thunderbolt', the special weapon of Zeus. Also an epithet of Zeus, hence 'Thunderer'. Clearchus probably wished to emphasize his descent from Zeus. Compare Justin 16.5. Note the later use of this epithet by the Ptolemies. The disinherited son of Ptolemy I and Eurydice was surnamed Ceraunus.
[10] In assassinating Clearchus Chion and his asociates were killed by the tyrant's bodyguard. The tyranny continued under Clearchus' brother Satyrus. The testimonia relating to Chion are conveniently collected by During.
Burstein, S. Outpost of Hellenism: the emergence of Heraclea on the Black Sea. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1976, chap.IV
During, I. Chion of Heraclea. A novel in letters. Goteborg: Wettergren and Kerbers, 1951 (Reprint Arno, 1979)
Lenschau, T. 'Klearchos (4)' in RE 11,1 cols.577-579
Worle, A., Die politische Tatigkeit der Schuler Platons. Darmstadt: Kummerle, 1981, pp.139-152
Keywords: biography; clothing; dreams; ethics; geography; history; military affairs; philosophy; politics; religion
Translated by: Tony Natoli on 17 February 2003@16:41:59.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes, keywords, bibliography; cosmetics) on 18 February 2003@05:19:07.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 October 2005@08:40:37.
David Whitehead (more keywords) on 20 November 2005@10:15:36.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 27 February 2013@07:46:49.
Catharine Roth (upgraded link) on 20 June 2013@01:29:29.
David Whitehead (another note) on 2 April 2014@06:49:48.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 4 August 2014@06:56:05.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 2 January 2015@19:18:00.
David Whitehead (coding) on 1 May 2016@08:39:00.
Catharine Roth (fixed note numbers) on 2 September 2019@02:31:24.


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