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Headword: Κατηναρισμένας
Adler number: kappa,1052
Translated headword: having been slaughtered
Vetting Status: high
Sophocles used it with reference to booty. And [= But] it is without authority; for the [verb] enarizein [means] skuleuein ["to strip a slain enemy of his arms"]; [note] that skula [are] enara, from the [verb] ἀρηρέναι , and we are within them. And the [passage] in Homer [is] of this kind: "it is indeed better to slay beasts in the mountains". For how is it possible to 'despoil' lions, unless the [verb] skuleuein could also be applied to irrational creatures? Callimachus [applies it] to the skin of a lion: "the skulos, becoming a covering for a man,[1] a protection against snow and missiles".[2]
Greek Original:
Κατηναρισμένας: ἐπὶ τῆς λείας ἐχρήσατο Σοφοκλῆς. καὶ ἔστιν ἄκυρον: τὸ γὰρ σκυλεύειν ἐναρίζειν: ὅτι τὰ ἔναρα σκῦλα, παρὰ τὸ ἀρηρέναι, καὶ ἐντὸς αὐτῶν εἶναι ἡμᾶς. καὶ τὸ παρ' Ὁμήρῳ τοιοῦτον: ἤτοι βέλτερόν ἐστι κατ' οὔρεα θῆρας ἐναίρειν. πῶς γὰρ οἷόν τε ἐστὶ σκυλεύειν τοὺς λέοντας, εἰ μὴ εἴη καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν ἀλόγων ζῴων τὸ σκυλεύειν; Καλλίμαχος ἐπὶ τῆς λεοντείου δορᾶς: τὸ δὲ σκύλος ἀνδρὶ καλύπτρη γινόμενον νιφετοῦ καὶ βελέων ἔρυμα.
The headword is the perfect passive participle, feminine accusative plural, of κατεναρίζω ('I kill outright'). It is quoted here from Sophocles, Ajax 26, with comment from the scholia there; cf. lambda 356.
The scholiast is criticizing a supposedly wrong usage by Sophocles, but his own explanation is not accurate either. The starting-point must be the equivalence of the two nouns ἔναρα and σκῦλα . These nouns seem to have kept their original meanings with verbal forms derived from them (Chantraine s.v. ἔναρα and σκῦλα ; epsilon 1124, epsilon 1125, sigma 707). For ἔναρα , the verb ἐναίρω is attested first, followed by the secondary form ἐναρίζω . The primary meaning of both verbs, ἐναίρω and ἐναρίζω , seems to have been to strip an enemy of his arms and only as a second step to slay him.
To the semantic field of ἔναρα belongs the first quotation, given here: Homer, Iliad 21.485. Hera, reproving Artemis for taking part in the battle, defines Artemis' usual activity this way. The scholia there mention the same difficulties, and the expression (θῆρας ἐναίρειν ) is qualified as misuse of language, because animals do not have armour to be stripped of. An alternative explanation uses the verb to kill (φονεύω ) to gloss it, alluding to special behaviour of Artemis, who is clad in animal skins. A fragment of Alcman (fr. 53 P = 119 Calame) is quoted but the transmitted form of the verb there is spurious (see Calame 1983). A third explanation links Artemis, through the custom of some hunters to skin animals at full moon, to this verb. Both explanations involving Artemis are however based on the wrong association of τὸ σκύλος and τὰ σκῦλα and extend the meaning of the verb from stripping a warrior of his armour to stripping an animal of its skin, which brings us back from ἔναρα to σκῦλα and the quotation from Callimachus (fr. 677 Pfeiffer = SH 268B).
There is also some confusion in this second part of the explanation. The quotation from Callimachus attests the noun τὸ σκύλος (meaning skin) which is not the singular of σκῦλα (τὸ σκῦλον ). See Chantraine s.v. σκύλος . The verb σκυλεύω involved here (with the meaning of stripping foes of their arms) is linked to σκῦλα , whereas to σκύλος belongs another verb: σκύλλω , with the meaning of maltreat, tear into pieces. Still, the equivalence of the two verbs σκυλεύω and ἐναρίζω is correct and reappears in the scholia to Homer, Iliad 21.26b. The same difficulty is mentioned but about Achilles slaying Trojan warriors near the Scamander. The scholiast reports the misuse of a rhapsode called Hermodoros and goes on affirming that ἐναίρειν is a synonym of σκυλεύειν . Sophocles, Ajax 26 is alluded to, however, as supporting evidence. The two occurrences in the Iliad prove however that the verb ἐναίρειν was used for both, for the slaying of enemies (Achilles) and for the killing of beasts (Artemis) in Homer. Hesychius s.v. ἐναίρω gives both meanings, killing and despoiling.
[1] καλύπτρη is more often used for a woman's veil. This may explain the addition of ἀνδρί in the line for its usage in the masculine sphere.
[2] ἔρυμα : Callimachus seems to combine two usages of this word in archaic poetry. In Homer, Iliad 4.137, it describes a protection against thrown arms, whereas in Hesiod, Works and Days 536 it means a protection from snow.
The present occurrence is the only attestation of the two lines of Callimachus (fr. 677 Pf. = SH 268B). The fragment could be about Heracles. Indeed in Theocritus, Idylls 25.142 σκύλος λέοντος is used for Heracles’ garment (see Pfeiffer 1949 and D’Alessio 1997). For the use of σκύλος as the skin of any animal see Lycophron, Alexandra 1316, about the golden fleece and Hesychius s.v. σκύλος .
Calame C., Alcman : Fragmenta, Rome 1983
d'Alessio G. B., Callimaco, Aitia giambi e altri frammenti, Milan 1997
Pfeiffer R., Callimachus, Fragmenta, Oxford 1949
Keywords: clothing; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; gender and sexuality; military affairs; poetry; science and technology; trade and manufacture; tragedy; women; zoology
Translated by: Alexandra Trachsel on 18 February 2009@09:21:43.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified aspects of tr; rearranged notes, adding another x-ref; tweaks and cosmetics) on 19 February 2009@04:28:33.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 11 February 2013@03:32:50.
David Whitehead (tweak to tr) on 15 August 2013@07:43:36.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 28 April 2015@23:25:29.


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