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Translation:
A predicate is what is asserted of something or a state of affairs constructed with some thing or some things.[1] For in the topic concerning the state of affairs and significations [2] are placed the explanation regarding the complete sayables, propositions and deductive arguments, and the [explanation] concerning the incomplete [sayables], predicates both active and passive.[3] They say that a sayable[4] is what subsists according to a rational impression. Of sayables, some are incomplete, such as 'writes', for we ask 'who?' Other [sayables] are complete, those which even contain a finished thought [5], such as 'Socrates writes'. Predicates are placed in the domain of incomplete sayables, but propositions, deductive arguments, questions, and inquiries are placed in the domain of complete [sayables].[6]
Greek Original:
Κατηγόρημα: κατηγόρημά ἐστι τὸ κατά τινος ἀγορευόμενον ἢ πρᾶγμα συντακτὸν περί τινος ἤ τινων. ἐν γὰρ τῷ περὶ πραγμάτων καὶ σημαινομένων τόπῳ τέτακται ὁ περὶ λεκτῶν αὐτοτελῶν, ἀξιωμάτων καὶ συλλογισμῶν λόγος: καὶ ὁ περὶ ἐλλιπῶν, κατηγορημάτων καὶ ὀρθῶν καὶ ὑπτίων. λεκτέον δέ φασι τὸ κατὰ φαντασίαν λογικὴν ὑφιστάμενον. τῶν δὲ λεκτῶν τὰ μέν εἰσιν ἐλλιπῆ, οἷον γράφει, ἐπιζητοῦμεν γὰρ τίς; τὰ δὲ αὐτοτελῆ καὶ ἀπηρτισμένην ἔχοντα τὴν διάνοιαν, οἷον γράφει ὁ Σωκράτης. ἐν μὲν τοῖς ἐλλιπέσι λεκτοῖς τέτακται τὰ κατηγορήματα, ἐν δὲ τοῖς αὐτοτελέσι τὰ ἀξιώματα καὶ οἱ συλλογισμοὶ καὶ τὰ ἐρωτήματα καὶ τὰ πύσματα.
Notes:
The whole entry is taken (with some variations) from Diogenes Laertius 7.63-64 and reports part of the Stoics' semantic theory.
[1] This definition belongs to the Stoic Apollodorus (D.L. 7.64). For the translation of pragma by 'state of affairs', see alpha 2827, note 2.
[2] Or 'what is signified'.
[3] That is to say, predicates expressed by active and passive verbs, respectively (again see alpha 2827, note 2).
[4] Reading λεκτόν ('sayable', 'what is said') instead of λεκτέον ('it must be said'). In fact, what follows is one of the canonical Stoic definitions of λεκτόν (D.L. 7.63; see also Sextus Empiricus, PH 2.104), and λεκτέον makes no sense in the context.
[5] Or 'expression' (ἐκφορά ), as the D.L. text reads (7.63), which improves the sense.
[6] On the Stoic doctrine of 'sayables', see Atherton 1993 and Frede 1994.
References:
C. Atherton, The Stoics on Ambiguity (Cambridge 1993).
M. Frede, "The Stoic Notion of a lekton", in S. Everson (ed.), Language. Companions to Ancient Thought 3, (Cambridge 1994) 109-128
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; philosophy
Translated by: Marcelo Boeri on 29 August 2002@01:13:49.
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