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Headword: Κατηγόρημα
Adler number: kappa,1039
Translated headword: predicate
Vetting Status: high
A predicate is what is asserted of something or a state of affairs constructed with some thing or some things.[1] For in the topic concerning the state of affairs and significations [2] are placed the explanation regarding the complete sayables, propositions and deductive arguments, and the [explanation] concerning the incomplete [sayables], predicates both active and passive.[3] They say that a sayable[4] is what subsists according to a rational impression. Of sayables, some are incomplete, such as 'writes', for we ask 'who?' Other [sayables] are complete, those which even contain a finished thought [5], such as 'Socrates writes'. Predicates are placed in the domain of incomplete sayables, but propositions, deductive arguments, questions, and inquiries are placed in the domain of complete [sayables].[6]
Greek Original:
Κατηγόρημα: κατηγόρημά ἐστι τὸ κατά τινος ἀγορευόμενον ἢ πρᾶγμα συντακτὸν περί τινος ἤ τινων. ἐν γὰρ τῷ περὶ πραγμάτων καὶ σημαινομένων τόπῳ τέτακται ὁ περὶ λεκτῶν αὐτοτελῶν, ἀξιωμάτων καὶ συλλογισμῶν λόγος: καὶ ὁ περὶ ἐλλιπῶν, κατηγορημάτων καὶ ὀρθῶν καὶ ὑπτίων. λεκτέον δέ φασι τὸ κατὰ φαντασίαν λογικὴν ὑφιστάμενον. τῶν δὲ λεκτῶν τὰ μέν εἰσιν ἐλλιπῆ, οἷον γράφει, ἐπιζητοῦμεν γὰρ τίς; τὰ δὲ αὐτοτελῆ καὶ ἀπηρτισμένην ἔχοντα τὴν διάνοιαν, οἷον γράφει ὁ Σωκράτης. ἐν μὲν τοῖς ἐλλιπέσι λεκτοῖς τέτακται τὰ κατηγορήματα, ἐν δὲ τοῖς αὐτοτελέσι τὰ ἀξιώματα καὶ οἱ συλλογισμοὶ καὶ τὰ ἐρωτήματα καὶ τὰ πύσματα.
The whole entry is taken (with some variations) from Diogenes Laertius 7.63-64 and reports part of the Stoics' semantic theory.
[1] This definition belongs to the Stoic Apollodorus (D.L. 7.64). For the translation of pragma by 'state of affairs', see alpha 2827, note 2.
[2] Or 'what is signified'.
[3] That is to say, predicates expressed by active and passive verbs, respectively (again see alpha 2827, note 2).
[4] Reading λεκτόν ('sayable', 'what is said') instead of λεκτέον ('it must be said'). In fact, what follows is one of the canonical Stoic definitions of λεκτόν (D.L. 7.63; see also Sextus Empiricus, PH 2.104), and λεκτέον makes no sense in the context.
[5] Or 'expression' (ἐκφορά ), as the D.L. text reads (7.63), which improves the sense.
[6] On the Stoic doctrine of 'sayables', see Atherton 1993 and Frede 1994.
C. Atherton, The Stoics on Ambiguity (Cambridge 1993).
M. Frede, "The Stoic Notion of a lekton", in S. Everson (ed.), Language. Companions to Ancient Thought 3, (Cambridge 1994) 109-128
Keywords: definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; philosophy
Translated by: Marcelo Boeri on 29 August 2002@01:13:49.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 29 August 2002@01:17:28.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 15 January 2003@08:22:30.
Catharine Roth (added betacode) on 17 August 2006@01:11:30.
David Whitehead (cosmetics) on 10 February 2013@09:03:27.


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