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Headword: Ἱππίας
Adler number: iota,545
Translated headword: Hippias
Vetting Status: high
A general of [the] Athenians. This man urged Darius to march against the Athenians and Greece, with Intaphernes and Datis as satraps and three hundred thousand soldiers, and he himself returned home with them, though he was already an old man. And they arrived and made a sweep through Eretria and sent those who had been captured to the king. He settled them near Sousa, and there is an epigram about them by Plato: "we are the Eretrian race of Euboeans; we lie near Sousa, alas! a land so far from our own." They came thence to Marathon. [The] Athenians were under the command of Miltiades the son of Cimon and made war against the barbarians. They also called the Lacedaemonians to battle through Philippides the day-runner, who made one thousand five hundred stades in one night.[1] And because the custom did not permit them to go to war before the full moon, they declined. Pan met up with Philippides as he was going back across the Parthenion mountain in Arcadia and faulted the Athenians, by whom he alone of all the gods was neglected, and promised to support them in battle. After one man had advised -- for they were ten[2] -- waiting for the Lacedaemonians, but with Miltiades and then Callimachus recommending that they go forth, the Athenians went out, themselves being nine thousand and having one thousand Plataeans [in support]. And they say they won that same day. Among these Callimachus [was found] standing as a corpse [propped up] on spears,[3] and Polyzelus, after being blinded when he saw a phantom shading his shield with its beard (they suppose him to be Pan as ally), fought as if he could see, and distinguished the enemy and his own side by voice.[4]
Greek Original:
Ἱππίας, Ἀθηναίων στρατηγός. οὗτος Δαρεῖον παροξύνας ἐπὶ τοὺς Ἀθηναίους στρατεῦσαι καὶ τὴν Ἑλλάδα, διὰ Ἰνταφέρνους καὶ Δάτιδος σατραπῶν καὶ λ# μυριάδων στρατοῦ, καὶ αὐτὸς σὺν αὐτοῖς κατῄει γηραιὸς ἤδη ὤν. καὶ ἐλθόντες ἐσαγήνευσαν μὲν Ἐρέτριαν καὶ τοὺς ληφθέντας τῷ βασιλεῖ ἔστειλαν. ὁ δὲ αὐτοὺς παρὰ τὰ Σοῦσα κατοικίζει, ἐφ' οἷς καὶ Πλάτωνός ἐστιν ἐπίγραμμα: Εὐβοέων γένος ἐσμὲν Ἐρετρικόν: ἄγχι δὲ Σούσων κείμεθα, φεῦ γαίης ὅσσον ἀφ' ἡμετέρης. ἐντεῦθεν ἐπὶ Μαραθῶνα ἦλθον. Ἀθηναῖοι δὲ ὑπὸ Μιλτιάδῃ στρατηγούμενοι τῷ Κίμωνος τοῖς βαρβάροις ἐπολέμησαν. ἐκάλουν δὲ ἐπὶ συμμαχίᾳ καὶ Λακεδαιμονίους διὰ Φιλιππίδου τοῦ ἡμεροδρόμου, ὃς τοὺς χιλίους καὶ πεντακοσίους σταδίους ἤνυσε διὰ μιᾶς νυκτός. καὶ ὅτι ὁ νόμος οὐκ εἴα στρατεύειν αὐτοὺς πρὸ πανσελήνου, καὶ παρῃτήσαντο. τῷ Φιλιππίδῃ δὲ ἐπανιόντι κατὰ τὸ Παρθένιον ὄρος τῆς Ἀρκαδίας ὁ Πὰν ἐντυχὼν ἐμέμψατο μὲν Ἀθηναίοις, ὡς μόνος θεῶν ἀμελούμενος, καὶ συμμαχήσειν ὑπέσχετο. οἱ δὲ Ἀθηναῖοι, συμβουλεύσαντος ἑνός, ἦσαν γὰρ δέκα, περιμεῖναι τοὺς Λακεδαιμονίους, Μιλτιάδου δὲ παραινοῦντος ἐξιέναι καὶ Καλλιμάχου, ἐξῆλθον αὐτοὶ μὲν ὄντες #22θ#, Πλαταιέας ἔχοντες #22α#. καὶ ἐν αὐτῇ φασὶ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐνίκησαν. ἐν τούτοις Καλλίμαχος ἐπὶ δοράτων εἱστήκει νεκρός, Πολύζηλος δὲ πηρωθείς, ὡς φάσμα θεασάμενος τῷ πώγωνι κρύπτων τὴν ἀσπίδα [σύμμαχον τὸν Πᾶνα δ' εἰκάζουσιν εἶναι], ἐμάχετο ὡς ὁρῶν, καὶ διέκρινε τῇ φωνῇ τοὺς ἰδίους καὶ τοὺς πολεμίους.
For Hippias see also iota 544.
[1] Approximately 170 and one half miles.
[2] That is, ten generals (under the overall command of the polemarch Callimachus, about to be mentioned).
[3] Again at kappa 226.
[4] [Again, summarily, at pi 1962, and in most respects for the worse there -- but the neuter participle κρύπτον there is surely to be preferred here also, from mss VM; Adler relegates it to the apparatus and prints masculine κρύπτων .] This entire narrative is based on Herodotus 6.105-107 and 6.117 (web addresses 1 and 2). Some names, however, are garbled -- 'Intaphernes' should be Artaphernes, and the man called here 'Polyzelus' is 'Epizelus' in Herodotus -- and of course the figure of 300,000 troops is nonsense (more than ten times the best modern estimates).
Associated internet addresses:
Web address 1,
Web address 2
Keywords: athletics; biography; ethics; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; mythology; philosophy; poetry; religion
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 18 November 2000@23:53:55.
Vetted by:
William Hutton (Modified translation, augmented note, added keyword) on 19 November 2000@12:19:29.
David Whitehead (modified translation; added note; raised status) on 20 November 2000@04:18:21.
David Whitehead (augmented note) on 4 December 2002@03:12:49.
David Whitehead (modified translation; added x-ref) on 24 August 2003@06:21:53.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added links) on 14 December 2003@15:12:04.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr and expanded n.4, at the prompting of Emilie Sel) on 22 April 2012@05:49:49.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 14 January 2013@06:27:35.
David Whitehead (corrected tr (and expanded a note), as prompted by Dr Jan P. Stronk) on 19 March 2017@04:34:58.


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