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Headword: Ἱππεῖς
Adler number: iota,537
Translated headword: cavalrymen, horsemen, knights
Vetting Status: high
The Athenian demos was divided into four parts: into Pentakosiomedimnoi,[1] into Hippeis,[2] into Zeugitai,[3] into Thetes.[4] The Pentakosiomedimnoi they named because their farming produced that many measures; and these men were affluent. But the Hippeis as they farmed [produced] less than the Pentakosiomedimnoi, up to 300 measures. The Hippeis they named because if need arose each could support his own horse (hippos). At first they numbered 600; later, as the city grew, they became 1200. For the same reason [sc. as they bore their name], they called the sacrifices they sent up for their processions hippades.[5] They were permitted to honor [?themselves] and grow long hair. But the Thetes were men who could not hold office, but only sit on juries or in the assembly, in order to support themselves from jury-pay[6] and assembly-pay.[7]
Greek Original:
Ἱππεῖς: εἰς τέσσαρα μέρη διῄρητο ὁ δῆμος τῶν Ἀθηναίων, εἰς Πεντακοσιομεδίμνους, εἰς Ἱππέας, εἰς Ζευγίτας, εἰς Θῆτας. καὶ τοὺς μὲν Πεντακοσιομεδίμνους διὰ τὸ γεωργεῖν τοσαῦτα μέτρα οὕτως ὠνόμαζον: καὶ ἦσαν οὗτοι εὔποροι. οἱ δὲ Ἱππεῖς ἥττους μὲν τῶν Πεντακοσιομεδίμνων, μέχρι δὲ τῶν τ# ἐγεώργουν μέτρων. Ἱππεῖς δὲ αὐτοὺς ὠνόμαζον διὰ τὸ δύνασθαι, εἴ ποτε χρεία γένοιτο, ἵππον ἕκαστον αὐτῶν τρέφειν. ἦσαν δὲ τὸ μὲν πρῶτον χ# τὸν ἀριθμόν: οὗτοι δὲ μετὰ ταῦτα, τῆς πόλεως πληθυνούσης, ἐγένοντο σ1# πρὸς τοῖς χιλίοις. ὅθεν καὶ τὰς θυσίας, ἃς αὐτοὶ πέμποιεν ταῖς πομπαῖς, ἐκάλουν ἱππάδας. ἐξῆν δὲ αὐτοῖς ἐπιτιμᾶν καὶ κομᾶν. ἦσαν δὲ οἱ Θῆτες παρ' αὐτοῖς οἷς οὐκ ἐφεῖτο ἄρχειν ἢ δικάζειν ἢ ἐκκλησιάζειν μόνον, ἵν' ἔκ τε τοῦ δικαστικοῦ καὶ τοῦ ἐκκλησιαστικοῦ τρέφοιντο.
From the scholia to Aristophanes, Knights 627, where the headword appears; compare generally ?Aristotle, Athenaion Politeia 7.3.
[1] Literally, five-hundred-bushel men. See e.g. Thucydides 3.16; Aristotle, Politics 1274a19; Plutarch, Solon 18. See also epsilon 653, iota 525, pi 972, tau 58.
[2] (= the present headword; for its definition see the translated headwords, and later in the entry) See e.g. Aristotle, Politics 1297b18; also iota 525.
[3] (See e.g. Aristotle, Politics 1274a20 and Athenaion Politeia 4.3.) Tellingly, this term (cf. zeta 31) is not defined here, and modern scholarship has debated whether the yoke (zeugos) in question implies an agriculural definition (someone who can afford to own a yoke of oxen) or a military one (a hoplite infantryman, 'yoked' to his comrades in the phalanx). For the latter view -- taken by P.J. Rhodes with his translation 'rankers' -- see D. Whitehead, 'The archaic Athenian zeugitai', Classical Quarterly 31 (1981) 282-286.
[4] Labourers, in effect. See e.g. Thucydides 6.43; Pollux 3.82.
[5] Hesychius s.v.
[6] Aristotle, Politics 1320a26.
[7] cf. the scholia to Aristophanes, Knights 51. See also pi 1181 for both jury-pay and assembly-pay.
Keywords: agriculture; clothing; comedy; constitution; daily life; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; economics; food; history; law; military affairs; religion; zoology
Translated by: Ross Scaife ✝ on 4 February 2004@23:45:49.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (added alternative headwords; modified aspects of translation; augmented notes and keywords) on 5 February 2004@04:39:10.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaking) on 14 January 2013@05:51:04.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 25 January 2015@23:40:40.
David Whitehead on 27 April 2016@03:55:55.
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 9 February 2019@00:56:52.


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