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Headword: Ἰουδήθ
Adler number: iota,430
Translated headword: Judith
Vetting Status: high
[It is said] that in the time of Xerxes, king of the Persians,[1] the Ethiopian kings rose up against the Persians, and when the king campaigned against them, the Jews looked to the revolt and, contemptuous of the king, went to Jerusalem. But when this man [i.e.. Xerxes] got the best of the Aethiopians he campaigned against the Jews, entrusting the war against them to Holophernes. While Holophernes was besieging Jerusalem, a certain woman named Judith feigned love for him; while he slept, at night she severed his head, and after impaling this atop the wall, she prepared to flee from the Persians. That is how the siege was lifted and the Jews released from their terror. But Nemesias, a priest of the Jews, spoke frankly to him [i.e. Xerxes] and persuaded him to make peace with [the Jews] and to allow them to rebuild Jerusalem, with Esdra as their leader.[2] But Julius Africanus claims that it was Nebuchadnezzar, a.k.a. Cambyses, who was killed by her.[3]
Greek Original:
Ἰουδήθ: ὅτι ἐπὶ Ξέρξου, τοῦ βασιλέως Περσῶν, οἱ τῶν Αἰθιόπων βασιλεῖς ἐπανίστανται Πέρσαις, καὶ τοῦ βασιλέως κατ' ἐκείνων στρατεύσαντος, οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι πρὸς ἀπόστασιν εἶδον καὶ καταφρονήσαντες αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τὴν Ἱερουσαλὴμ ἀνῆλθον. οὗτος δὲ περιγενόμενος τῶν Αἰθιόπων ἐπὶ τοὺς Ἰουδαίους στρατεύει Ὁλοφέρνῃ τὸν κατ' αὐτῶν πόλεμον ἐπιτρέψας. πολιορκοῦντος τοίνυν Ὁλοφέρνου τὴν Ἱερουσαλήμ, γυνή τις, ὄνομα Ἰουδήθ, προσποιησαμένη τὴν φιλοῦσαν αὐτόν, ὡς ἐκάθευδε, νυκτὸς ἀπέτεμεν αὐτοῦ τὴν κεφαλὴν καὶ ἀνασκολοπίσασα ταύτην ἐπὶ τοῦ τείχους φυγεῖν παρεσκεύασε τοὺς Πέρσας: οὕτω τε τῆς πολιορκίας λυθείσης ἀπηλλάγησαν οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι τοῦ φόβου. ὁ δὲ τῶν Ἰουδαίων ἱερεὺς Νεμεσίας παρρησίαν ἔχων πρὸς αὐτὸν ἔπεισεν αὐτὸν εἰρήνην σπείσασθαι πρὸς αὐτοὺς καὶ συγχωρῆσαι αὐτοῖς ἀνακτίσασθαι τὴν Ἱερουσαλήμ, Ἔσδρα προηγουμένου αὐτῶν. Ἰούλιος δὲ Ἀφρικανὸς λέγει, ὅτι Ναβουχοδονόσορ, ὁ καὶ Καμβύσης, ἀναιρεῖται ὑπ' αὐτῆς.
See also iota 431, omicron 210.
[1] See generally xi 54.
[2] Confused account from the Book of Judith: cf. iota 431, and see Catholic Encyclopedia entry at web address 1.
[3] Julius Africanus, Chronographia T75 (Wallraff et al.).
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; chronology; ethics; gender and sexuality; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; religion; women
Translated by: Ross Scaife ✝ on 29 October 2002@14:42:10.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (augmented note, added keywords) on 3 August 2003@13:37:39.
Catharine Roth (added cross-reference) on 3 August 2003@13:39:18.
David Whitehead (added x-ref; augmented keywords; cosmetics) on 4 August 2003@03:04:10.
David Whitehead (more x-refs) on 7 December 2009@06:28:59.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr; more keywords) on 13 January 2013@06:00:02.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 29 January 2015@09:44:46.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 26 April 2016@10:51:41.


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