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Headword: Ἡγεμονία δικαστηρίου
Adler number: eta,39
Translated headword: presidency of a jurycourt
Vetting Status: high
It was not permitted to bring all lawsuits before all of the archons. Rather, before the Archon[1] they tried cases involving orphans and matters involving insanity and adjudications about inheritances, and the records of those who had served as archon went to the auditors. Before the King, however,[2] they tried cases of murder and impiety and any dispute concerning a priesthood; previously also any disputes among the priests concerning holy matters; and he would make the proclamations that those at fault were forbidden access to the laws.[3] To the War-Archon[4] they brought any suits against a freedman for having forsaken his patron.[5] Beyond this, all that the Archon attended to among the citizens, the Polemarch attended to among the resident aliens. The Lawgivers (θεσμοθέται )[6] [handled cases] of sycophancy and bribery and assault and seduction and conspiracy. They bring before the Eleven[7] cases involving robbery and clothes-stealing and slave dealers. They bring before the general cases involving trierarchies and property-exchange.[8] So by arbitrating[9] in this way [these various officials] are said to hold the presidency of a jurycourt. In fact the King also had charge of the mysteries together with the supervisors; but he alone also [wears] a crown.[10]
Greek Original:
Ἡγεμονία δικαστηρίου: τοῖς ἄρχουσιν οὐ πάσας πᾶσιν ἐφεῖτο δίκας εἰσάγειν: ἀλλὰ τῷ μὲν Ἄρχοντι τὰς τῶν ὀρφανῶν καὶ τὰ τῆς παρανοίας καὶ τὰς τῶν ἀποκλήρων ἐπιδικασίας, τοῖς δὲ λογισταῖς τὰς κατὰ τῶν ἀρξάντων εὐθύνας, τῷ μέντοι γε Βασιλεῖ τάς τε φονικὰς καὶ τὰς τῆς ἀσεβείας καὶ ἄν τις ἱερωσύνης ἠμφισβήτει: πρότερον δὲ καὶ τὰς περὶ τῶν ἱερῶν τοῖς ἱερεῦσιν ἀμφισβητήσεις: προηγόρευε δὲ καὶ τῶν νόμων εἴργεσθαι τοὺς ἐναντία. τῷ πολεμάρχῳ δὲ ὅσαι ἀποστασίου γραφὴν ἔφερον: ἔτι μὴν καὶ ὅσα ὁ Ἄρχων ἐν τοῖς ἀστοῖς, ὁ πολέμαρχος τοῖς μετοίκοις διῄτει. οἱ θεσμοθέται συκοφαντίας καὶ δώρων καὶ ὕβρεων καὶ μοιχείας καὶ βουλεύσεως. τοῖς Ἕνδεκα ὅσαι λῃστὰς καὶ λωποδύτας καὶ ἀνδραποδιστὰς εἰσάγουσι. τῷ στρατηγῷ περὶ τριηραρχίας καὶ ἀντιδόσεως. οὕτως οὖν διαιτοῦντες ἡγεμονίαν δικαστηρίου ἔχειν λέγονται. ἀλλὰ γὰρ ὁ Βασιλεὺς καὶ τῶν μυστηρίων ἅμα τοῖς ἐπιμεληταῖς προί̈σταται: ἔχει δὲ μόνος καὶ στέφανον.
For the headword phrase, used in Aeschines 3.14, see also eta 40. (Both entries present a static picture of the administration of justice and the specific duties of the various magistrates at Athens; in fact they evolved over time.) The ultimate source of the present entry is ?Aristotle. Athenaion Politeia 56-61, here much abridged.
[1] a.k.a the Archon Eponymous (ἄρχων ἐπώνυμος ), because each Athenian civil year was named after him (e.g. the year of Eukleides = 403/2 BCE).
[2] The so-called Archon Basileus (ἄρχων βασιλεύς ) -- more accurately the Basileus -- especially concerned with religious ritual.
[3] Garbled here, but see Pollux 8.90 (and ?Aristotle, Athenaion Politeia 57.2).
[4] The Archon Polemarchos (ἄρχων πολέμαρχος ), once C-in-C of the armed forces; latterly, as exemplified here, a magistrate with special responsibilities for non-citizens.
[5] sc. and chose another. See alpha 3546.
[6] Six in number. See generally theta 266, theta 267.
[7] cf. epsilon 1156 (and e.g. Aristophanes, Wasps 1108; Antiphon 5.70; Lysias 14.17; Plato, Phaedo 59E; ?Aristotle Athenaion Politeia 7.3).
[8] From ?Aristotle, Athenaion Politeia 61.1, where we see that this odd singular should be plural: these were duties discharged by all 10 Athenian generals (strategoi: sigma 1174) in their judicial role. For the liturgy of trierarchy, where the richest members of the community equipped (and, if they so chose, commanded) a warship see tau 974. "Property-exchange" (antidosis) was a legal procedure under which anyone appointed to a liturgy could argue that someone else was better-placed to undertake it; see for instance Lysias 3.20.
[9] Or better (as in ms A) "proceeding".
[10] Every archon could wear a crown as badge of office.
Keywords: children; clothing; constitution; daily life; economics; ethics; gender and sexuality; history; law; military affairs; religion; rhetoric; women
Translated by: Ross Scaife ✝ on 3 February 2004@22:56:06.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified headword and translation; augmented notes and keywords) on 4 February 2004@03:57:13.
David Whitehead (typos) on 4 February 2004@08:19:59.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 29 November 2005@08:09:06.
David Whitehead on 3 December 2012@05:59:20.
David Whitehead on 22 April 2016@07:33:22.


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