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Headword: Χρύσιππος
Adler number: chi,568
Translated headword: Chrysippus, Chrysippos
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
Son of Apollonides; of Soloi or Tarsus.[1] He was a philosopher, pupil of Cleanthes,[2] and he led the Stoic school after Cleanthes.[3] He died at the age of 73 because he drank immoderately and fainted. However others say that in the 143rd Olympiad[4] he died because he split his sides laughing too much.[5] He wrote more than seven hundred books about philosophical, historical and grammatical subjects.[6]
Greek Original:
Χρύσιππος, Ἀπολλωνίδου, Σολεὺς ἢ Ταρσεύς, φιλόσοφος, μαθητὴς Κλεάνθους, καθηγησάμενος τῆς Στωϊκῆς σχολῆς μετὰ Κλεάνθην. καὶ τελευτήσας ο# καὶ τρίων ἐτῶν, ὑπὸ τοῦ πιεῖν ἄκρατον καὶ ἰλιγγιάσαι: κατὰ δὲ ἄλλους ὑπὸ γέλωτος ἀπείρου: ἐπὶ ρμγ# ὀλυμπιάδος. συντέταχε δὲ βιβλία πλεῖον ἢ ψ# φιλόσοφά τε καὶ ἱστορικὰ καὶ γραμματικά.
Notes:
c.280-207 BCE. See generally OCD(4) s.v. (p.316); and cf. chi 567, chi 569.
Chrysippus was the principal systematizer of Stoicism. He is considered to have been, with Zeno, co-founder of the Stoa. He wrote on areas of philosophy defined by Zeno: logic, ethics, and physics. He was among the first to organise propositional logic as an intellectual discipline. The information of this passage derives from Diogenes Laertius 7.179-189, where D.L. sometimes also mentions his sources.
[1] D.L. 7.179 (SVF II,1,2) says that he knows this from Alexander Polyhistor (fr. 145 Mueller = 91 Jacoby). who seems to introduce the uncertainty over Soloi and Tarsus as birthplace of Chrysippus. Strabo (14.5.8; SVF II,2,32), Galen (Protr. 7; SVF II,3,2), and Pausanias (1.17.2; SVF 3,19) state that Chrysippus was born in Soloi, and Strabo adds that his parents emigrated from Soloi in Cyprus to Tarsus in Cilicia, early in the third century BCE, which was a period of great conflicts in this area.
[2] cf. kappa 1711.
[3] According to D.L. 7.179 (SVF II,1,4) either Zeno or Cleanthes was Chrysippus' mentor; however, this evidence is questionable if Zeno died in 263. The Suda is clearly correct.
[4] 208-205 BCE.
[5] Both versions of Chrysippus' death are present in D.L. 7184-185. For the first, D.L. takes the testimony of Hermippus (fr.51 Mueller) and Apollodorus (fr.46 Jacoby). For the second, he explains the situation that produced Chrysippus' laugh: seeing a donkey eating some figs, he suggested that the old woman who owned the donkey give it a glass of wine. He then broke into a fit of laughter that ended up killing him.
[6] D.L. 7.180 says that Chrysippus wrote more than 750 works and gives (7.189-202) a catalogue ordered by subjects.
References:
Hans von Arnim, Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta, 4 vol. (1905-24)
Max Pohlenz, Die Stoa, 2 vol. (1948-49)
Josiah B. Gould, The Philosophy of Chrysippus (1970)
Jason L. Saunders, Greek and Roman Philosophy After Aristotle (1966)
Emile Brehier, Chrysippe et l'ancien stoicisme (1951)
A.A Long & D.N. Sedley, The Hellenistic Philosophers (1987)
Keywords: biography; chronology; ethics; food; geography; historiography; medicine; philosophy
Translated by: Claudia Marsico on 10 November 1999@05:25:56.
Vetted by:
Edmund P. Cueva on 14 March 2000@06:53:16.
David Whitehead (modified translation; augmented notes and keywords; restorative and other cosmetics) on 25 September 2002@04:59:06.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 18 November 2005@10:08:35.
David Whitehead (another x-ref; more keywords; tweaking) on 14 November 2013@04:34:07.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 1 August 2014@06:34:02.

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