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Headword: Αἵρεσις
Adler number: alphaiota,286
Translated headword: school, sect
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[A school][1] [is a system] that, in accordance with appearance, follows or seems to follow a certain type of account.[2] Hippobotus[3] says that there are 9 philosophical schools and ways of life: Megaric,[4] Eretrian,[5] Cyrenaic,[6] Epicurean,[7] Annicerian,[8] Theodorean,[9] Zenonian (the one also [called] Stoic),[10] Academic,[11] Peripatetic.[12] [He does] not [include] Cynic,[13] or the one from Elis,[14] or Dialectical.[15] As to the Pyrrhonian, most people do not include it because of its obscurity. For if we understood an adherence to doctrines as a school, the Pyrrhonian would not be named a school any more, for it does not maintain doctrines.[16] Furthermore, a certain Eclectic [school] was introduced by Potamo(n) of Alexandria,[17] who picked out what pleased him from each school. He says that criteria are the true things. [A criterion is] that because of which a judgment is effected, that is, the ruling [principle]. [A criterion] understood in terms of "that because of which" is, for example, the most accurate presentation.[18] Both matter and the active are principles of everything, [the latter being] the production and [the former] the place, for it is "that out of which," "that because of which," "that of what kind," that "where something is."[19] An end is that to which all the things are referred,[20] the life according to the whole and perfect virtue, both with natural bodily [goods] and external [goods].[21]
Greek Original:
Αἵρεσις: ἡ λόγῳ τινὶ κατὰ τὸ φαινόμενον ἀκολουθοῦσα ἢ δοκοῦσα ἀκολουθεῖν. Ἱππόβοτος δὲ θ# φησὶν αἱρέσεις εἶναι τῶν φιλοσόφων καὶ ἀγωγάς: α# Μεγαρικήν, Ἐρετριακήν, Κυρηναϊκήν, Ἐπικούρειον, Ἀννικέρειον, Θεοδώρειον, Ζηνώνειον, τὴν καὶ Στωικήν, Ἀκαδημαϊκήν, Περιπατητικήν: οὔτε δὲ Κυνικὴν οὔτε Ἠλιακὴν οὔτε Διαλεκτικήν. τὴν γὰρ Πυρρώνειον οὐδ' οἱ πλείους προσποιοῦνται διὰ τὴν ἀσάφειαν. εἰ γὰρ αἵρεσιν νοοῖμεν πρόσκλισιν ἐν δόγμασιν ἀκολουθίαν ἔχουσαν, οὐκέτ' ἂν προσαγορεύοιτο αἵρεσις ἡ Πυρρώνειος: οὐ γὰρ ἔχει δόγματα. ἔτι δὲ καὶ Ἐκλεκτή τις εἰσήχθη ὑπὸ Ποτάμωνος τοῦ Ἀλεξανδρέως, ἐκλεξαμένου τὰ ἀρέσαντα ἐξ ἑκάστης τῶν αἱρέσεων. κριτήρια δέ φησιν εἶναι τἀληθῆ: τὸ μὲν ὡς ὑφ' οὗ γίνεται ἡ κρίσις, τουτέστι τὸ ἡγεμονικόν: τὸ δὲ ὡς δι' οὗ, οἷον τὴν ἀκριβεστάτην φαντασίαν. ἀρχάς τε τῶν ὅλων τήν τε ὕλην καὶ τὸ ποιοῦν, ποίησίν τε καὶ τόπον: ἐξ οὗ γὰρ καὶ ὑφ' οὗ καὶ ποίῳ καὶ ἐν ᾧ. τέλος δὲ εἶναι ἐφ' ᾧ πάντα ἀναφέρεται, ζωὴν κατὰ πᾶσαν ἀρετὴν τελείαν, οὐκ ἄνευ τῶν τοῦ σώματος κατὰ φύσιν καὶ τῶν ἐκτός.
Notes:
An approximation (and abridgement) of Diogenes Laertius 1.19-21.
[1] The Greek noun hairesis can also mean "choice," so the word meant "what is chosen" (see Mansfeld 1999, 21 ff.).
[2] See Sextus Empiricus, Pyrrhoniae Hypotyposes 1.17.
[3] A doxographer writing about 200 BCE (see Diogenes Laertius 1.19 and Mansfeld 1999, 21 ff.); cf. iota 554.
[4] The Megaric school (also called "Dialectical") is mainly represented by Diodorus Cronus (active in Athens and Alexandria between 315 and 285 BCE), Stilpo (360-280: sigma 1114), and Euclides of Megara (epsilon 3539). The Megarics made significant contributions to modal logic.
[5] The most representative philosopher of this school was Menedemus of Eretria (345-260; see Diogenes Laertius 1.19).
[6] The Cyrenaic school was given its name by Aristippus of Cyrene, a friend of Socrates and a contemporary of Plato; Aristippus was active between the last decades of the fifth century and the first half of the fourth. But the real founder of the school was Aristippus the Younger (see Eusebius, Praeparatio Evangelica 14.18.31-32), who defended the thesis that the real goal of life is the bodily pleasure of the moment. See alpha 3908, alpha 3909. He probably was a forerunner of Epicurus to some extent; however, in distinguishing katastematic pleasure from the kinetic one, Epicurus disagrees with Aristippus, and in general with the Cyrenaics, who just seem to have accepted the kinetic pleasure. (For details on this issue, see Diogenes Laertius 10.136-137.) Other important Cyrenaic philosophers were Antipater of Cyrene and Aristotle of Cyrene.
[7] Epicurus (epsilon 2404) and the Epicureans.
[8] The way of life related to Anniceris (alpha 2466), a Cyrenaic philosopher (see Brunschwig 1999, 251ff.).
[9] The school or way of life linked with Theodorus, another Cyrenaic philosopher. See theta 150; Diogenes Laertius 2.98.
[10] Zeno of Citium, the founder of Stoicism (zeta 79).
[11] The way of life related to Plato's Academy, even though the Academic way of life here must stand for the Academic skepticism (represented by Arcesilaus and Carneades; cf. Diogenes Laertius 7.19).
[12] The way of life related to Aristotle's Lyceum or Peripatos.
[13] The Cynic school, founded by Diogenes of Sinope (delta 1143).
[14] Elis, the city where the famous philosopher Pyrrho, the founder of Greek skepticism (360-270: pi 3238, cf. pi 3241), was born.
[15] The philosopher Clitomachus (according to Sextus, M. 9.182, Carneades' pupil) is representative of this school.
[16] This Suda passage is quoting Sextus Empiricus, Pyrrhoniae Hypotyposes 1.16, in a slightly different way.
[17] See pi 2127; cf. Greek Anthology 6.21.9; 11.131.3.
[18] This is a probable reference to the Stoic criterion of truth "apprehensive presentation" (kataleptike phantasia), that which comes about from what is and it is formed in exact accordance with what is (see Diogenes Laertius 7.46; Sextus, M. 7. 248; 11.183 with Frede's comments in 1999, 300-321).
[19] This is again Stoic doctrine: see Diogenes Laertius 7.134, and alpha 4092.
[20] See Stobaeus, Ecloga 2.76, 22-23 (ed. Wachsmuth).
[21] See Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics 1138a5 ff.; 1101a14ff.
References:
Brunschwig, J. 1999, "Introduction: The beginnings of Hellenistic Epistemology," in Algra, K., Barnes, J., Mansfeld, J., Schofield, M. (eds.) The Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy, Cambridge 1999
Giannantoni, G. (ed.) Socratis et Socraticorum reliquiae, Naples 1990 (4 vols.)
Frede, M., "Stoic Epistemology," in Algra et al. (eds.), cited above
Mansfeld, J. "Sources," in Algra et al. (eds.), cited above
Keywords: biography; chronology; definition; ethics; philosophy
Translated by: Marcelo Boeri on 1 May 2001@21:48:12.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 8 September 2002@16:51:20.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 9 September 2002@03:31:34.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added italics; cosmetics) on 20 January 2006@18:19:27.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 16 May 2012@06:37:27.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 22 February 2015@23:47:10.
Catharine Roth (expanded abbreviations) on 22 February 2015@23:55:39.
Catharine Roth on 23 February 2015@00:07:49.

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