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Headword: Ἀχαί̈α
Adler number: alpha,4669
Translated headword: Akhaia, Achaia, Achaea
Vetting Status: high
Translation:
[sc. Another name for] Hellas. For Memmius[1] the consul set out against the Corinthians and deprived Metellus of the victory that was in his grasp. He attacked the hard-pressed Achaeans near the Isthmus, defeated them, and without a blow he took Corinth. This city was first of the whole Hellenic world at this time. This seems to be the reason why even now they call Hellas "Achaia".[2] The Romans came and changed the name of the whole territory[3] to [that of] the subdued people, who were at that point the leaders of Hellas.
Also [sc. attested is the phrase] "Achaian missile," in reference to those who throw with good aim. In light of the fact that this sort of missile is most suitable of all against a siege, the missile of the slingers from Achaia.
Greek Original:
Ἀχαί̈α: ἡ Ἑλλάς. Μέμμιος γὰρ ὕπατος ἐπὶ τοὺς Κορινθίους σταλεὶς τὸν Μέτελλον ἐν χερσὶν οὖσαν τὴν νίκην ἀφείλετο. ἐπιγενόμενος δὲ πεπονηκόσι τοῖς Ἀχαιοῖς περὶ τὸν Ἰσθμὸν κατηγωνίσατο καὶ τὴν Κόρινθον εἷλεν αὐτοβοεὶ πρωτεύουσαν παντὸς κατὰ τοῦτο τοῦ Ἑλληνικοῦ: ὅθεν δοκοῦσι καὶ νῦν Ἀχαί̈αν ὀνομάζειν τὴν Ἑλλάδα. Ῥωμαῖοι δὲ ἐς τὸ χειρωθὲν ἔθνος, ὃ προεστὼς ἦν τότε τῆς Ἑλλάδος, τὴν ὅλην μεταβαλόντες τῆς χώρας ἐπωνυμίαν ἀφίκοντο. καὶ Ἀχαϊκὸν βέλος, ἐπὶ τῶν εὐστόχως βαλλόντων. παρ' ὅσον πάντων ἐπιτηδειότατόν ἐστι τὸ τοιοῦτον βέλος πρὸς πολιορκίαν, τὸ τῶν ἐξ Ἀχαί̈ας σφενδονητῶν βέλος.
Notes:
Most of the first paragraph of the entry seems to be a quotation or a paraphrase of some account from the first few centuries CE (perhaps an epitome of Pausanias 7.16.1-10), but the source is unidentifiable.
[1] So the transmitted text, both here and again at mu 565; but the Roman conqueror of Corinth in 146 BCE was L. Mummius (OCD(4) p.972).
[2] More specifically, the Romans gave the name "Achaea" to the province that they formed more than a hundred years later in the Peloponnese and central Greece. This province comprised some, but not all, of what was traditionally thought of as "Hellas". Prior to this, the term was generally restricted to the territory on the northern littoral of the Peloponnese (and is still used in that sense as late as the second century CE, by e.g. Pausanias (cf. Ptolemy 3.16.10)). The Romans responsible for naming the province may have been aware, however, that in Homer, the term "Achaiis" could refer to a much greater part of what was later known as Hellas (a term unknown to Homer) and that the "Greeks" at Troy could be referred to collectively as "Achaians". The Roman victory referred to here was not over "Achaia" per se, but over the Achaian League, which at that point included many non-Achaian cities, such as Corinth.
[3] Literally, "the whole name of the territory."
[4] This phrase is presented and glossed as if it were proverbial, but it is not in the paroemiographers.
Keywords: biography; daily life; definition; geography; history; military affairs; politics; proverbs; science and technology
Translated by: Jennifer Benedict on 18 September 2000@00:40:28.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (Altered wording, added keywords.) on 18 September 2000@01:04:32.
Joseph L. Rife on 3 December 2000@15:32:43.
David Whitehead (added note) on 19 March 2001@12:13:41.
David Whitehead (augmented note) on 8 July 2001@04:33:28.
David Whitehead (added note and keywords; cosmetics) on 29 August 2002@03:38:32.
William Hutton (Modified translation and augmented notes.) on 25 January 2007@04:24:52.
David Whitehead (another note; tweaks and cosmetics) on 9 May 2012@05:43:25.
David Whitehead (typo) on 24 July 2014@03:40:34.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 31 July 2014@04:58:49.
David Whitehead on 11 September 2015@08:11:07.

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