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Headword: *)/arxwn. *)/arxontes
Adler number: alpha,4119
Translated headword: archon (and) archons
Vetting Status: high
[There are] nine of them:[1] six thesmothetes,[2] archon [eponymous], king, polemarch.[3] And before the laws of Solon they were not allowed to sit in judgment together; instead, the king sat by what was called the Herdsman's House [Boukoleion], which was near to the Prytaneion; the polemarch [sat] in the Lyceum;[4] the archon at the [statues of the] Eponymoi, and the thesmothetes at the Thesmothesion. They were empowered to pronounce judgment on cases on their own authority. But after Solon they had no other function besides interrogating the litigants.[5]
Greek Original:
*)/arxwn. *)/arxontes: oi( e)nne/a tine/s: qesmoqe/tai e(/c, a)/rxwn, basileu\s, pole/marxos. kai\ pro\ me\n tw=n *so/lwnos no/mwn ou)k e)ch=n au)toi=s a(/ma dika/zein, a)ll' o( me\n basileu\s kaqh=sto para\ tw=| kaloume/nw| *boukolei/w|: to\ de\ h)=n plhsi/on tou= *prutanei/ou: o( de\ pole/marxos e)n *lukei/w|, kai\ o( a)/rxwn para\ tou\s *)epwnu/mous, oi( qesmoqe/tai para\ to\ *qesmoqe/sion. ku/rioi/ te h)=san w(/ste ta\s di/kas au)totelei=s poiei=sqai. u(/steron de\ *so/lwnos ou)de\n e(/teron au)toi=s telei=tai h)\ mo/non u(pokri/nousi tou\s a)ntidi/kous.
The primary headword, unglossed, is the nominative singular of this noun; the nominative plural is appended, which gives rise to the glossing (likewise or similarly done in other lexica.
[1] sc. in Athens.
[2] cf. theta 266 and (esp.) theta 267.
[3] cf. pi 1878 and (esp.) pi 1879.
[4] ?Aristotle, Ath. Pol. 3.5 calls the place where the Polemarch sat the Epilyceum.
[5] No classical-period evidence supports the idea that the archons could interrogate litigants during the hearing-in-chief itself; rather, they passively presided over the lawsuits that came before them. It is very tempting to agree with Pearson that the transmitted u(pokri/nousi should be a)nakri/nousi, i.e. the archons conducted the anakrisis or preliminary hearing -- which we know they did (see e.g. D.M. MacDowell, The Law in Classical Athens (London & Ithaca NY, 1978) 239-242).
Keywords: architecture; chronology; constitution; definition; geography; history; law; zoology
Translated by: William Hutton on 25 March 2002@14:09:57.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 11 April 2002@09:13:35.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 23 April 2012@10:38:18.
David Whitehead (more notes) on 1 September 2015@04:29:04.


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