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Headword: *)arxe/laos
Adler number: alpha,4084
Translated headword: Archelaos, Archelaus
Vetting Status: high
Son of Apollodorus or of Midon; a Milesian, a philosopher, called a 'natural philosopher' with respect to his philosophical school.[1]. [It is on record] that he was the first to introduce natural philosophy from Ionia.[2] He was a pupil of Anaxagoras of Clazomenae, and he had Socrates as a pupil. Some assert that he also taught Euripides.[3] He organized the study of natural philosophy, and he thought that the just and the base did not exist by nature, but by convention.[4] He organized some other [fields of study] as well.
Basil, bishop of Eirenoupolis, similar in spirit and in training to his namesake Basil of Caesarea, wrote against Archelaos an elder of Colonea.[5]
Greek Original:
*)arxe/laos, *)apollodw/rou h)\ *mi/dwnos, *milh/sios, filo/sofos, fusiko\s th\n ai(/resin klhqei/s. o(/ti a)po\ *)iwni/as prw=tos th\n fusiologi/an h)/gagen: *)anacago/rou maqhth\s tou= *klazomeni/ou, tou= de\ maqhth\s *swkra/ths: oi( de\ kai\ *eu)ripi/dhn fasi/n. sune/tace de\ fusiologi/an kai\ e)do/caze to\ di/kaion kai\ ai)sxro\n ou) fu/sei ei)=nai, a)lla\ no/mw|. sune/tace kai\ a)/lla tina/. o(/ti *basi/leios, e)pi/skopos *ei)rhnoupo/lews, th\n fre/na kai\ th\n a)/skhsin tw=| o(mwnu/mw| *basilei/w| *kaisarei/as e)oikw\s, e)/graye kata\ *)arxela/ou presbute/rou *kolwnei/as.
C5 BCE. See generally OCD(4) pp.138-9, under 'Archelaus(1)'; and further below.
The material of the first and principal part of the present entry comes largely from Diogenes Laertius 2.16.
[1] Or 'called a natural philosopher by choice.' At any rate, see again under delta 1080.
[2] Unlikely. DL loc.cit. does say this (adding that physical philosophy came to an end with Archelaos upon the shift of emphasis in philosophy toward ethics imposed by Socrates); but Clement of Alexandria construed the statement as applying not to Archelaos but to Anaxagoras, and the Loeb editor of DL, R.D. Hicks, translates accordingly.
[3] That Archelaos was a mentor of Socrates is asserted by Aristoxenus and Theophrastus as well as by DL. The association of Archelaos, Anaxagoras, and/or Socrates with the education of Euripides, however, strains chronology perhaps too much.
[4] Nothing of Archelaos' writings survive except one fragment, "coldness is the connection" (presumably which holds the Earth in a solid state); see Diels and Kranz, Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, 60B1a. From surviving testimonia (principally Hippolytus), he would seem to have held generally to the principles of Anaxagoras (see alpha 1981). He posited a geocentric universe, governed by the interplay of the hot and the cold, and the evolution of life from a primordial sludge through civilized society with "mind" as a guide. Compare the anthropology of Plato in the Protagoras.
[5] This addendum (absent from most of the manuscripts) comes from beta 152, and has been added simply because of the coincidence of the name Archelaos. (Note that presbu/tou in beta 152 has become presbute/rou here.)
H. Diels and W. Kranz, Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker (1951)
G.S. Kirk, J.E. Raven, and M. Schofield, The Presocratic Philosophers, 2nd ed. (1983)
W.K.C. Guthrie, History of Greek Philosophy v.3, pt.1: The World of the Sophists (1971)
Keywords: biography; Christianity; ethics; geography; philosophy; religion; science and technology
Translated by: Jeffery Murphy on 30 March 2000@17:11:26.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (modified translation and notes; added keyword) on 14 June 2001@09:52:22.
David Whitehead (augmented note) on 25 August 2002@10:28:17.
David Whitehead (another keyword; cosmetics) on 3 October 2005@07:26:20.
David Whitehead on 18 November 2005@10:05:21.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 23 April 2012@05:52:04.
David Whitehead (updated a ref) on 31 July 2014@04:04:34.
Catharine Roth (coding, keyword) on 17 November 2014@01:33:01.


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