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Headword: Ahiresis
Adler number: alphaiota,286
Translated headword: school, sect
Vetting Status: high
[A school][1] [is a system] that, in accordance with appearance, follows or seems to follow a certain type of account.[2] Hippobotus[3] says that there are 9 philosophical schools and ways of life: Megaric,[4] Eretrian,[5] Cyrenaic,[6] Epicurean,[7] Annicerian,[8] Theodorean,[9] Zenonian (the one also [called] Stoic),[10] Academic,[11] Peripatetic.[12] [He does] not [include] Cynic,[13] or the one from Elis,[14] or Dialectical.[15] As to the Pyrrhonian, most people do not include it because of its obscurity. For if we understood an adherence to doctrines as a school, the Pyrrhonian would not be named a school any more, for it does not maintain doctrines.[16] Furthermore, a certain Eclectic [school] was introduced by Potamo(n) of Alexandria,[17] who picked out what pleased him from each school. He says that criteria are the true things. [A criterion is] that because of which a judgment is effected, that is, the ruling [principle]. [A criterion] understood in terms of "that because of which" is, for example, the most accurate presentation.[18] Both matter and the active are principles of everything, [the latter being] the production and [the former] the place, for it is "that out of which," "that because of which," "that of what kind," that "where something is."[19] An end is that to which all the things are referred,[20] the life according to the whole and perfect virtue, both with natural bodily [goods] and external [goods].[21]
Greek Original:
Ahiresis: hê logôi tini kata to phainomenon akolouthousa ê dokousa akolouthein. Hippobotos de th# phêsin haireseis einai tôn philosophôn kai agôgas: a# Megarikên, Eretriakên, Kurênaïkên, Epikoureion, Annikereion, Theodôreion, Zênôneion, tên kai Stôikên, Akadêmaïkên, Peripatêtikên: oute de Kunikên oute Êliakên oute Dialektikên. tên gar Purrôneion oud' hoi pleious prospoiountai dia tên asapheian. ei gar hairesin nooimen prosklisin en dogmasin akolouthian echousan, ouket' an prosagoreuoito hairesis hê Purrôneios: ou gar echei dogmata. eti de kai Eklektê tis eisêchthê hupo Potamônos tou Alexandreôs, eklexamenou ta aresanta ex hekastês tôn haireseôn. kritêria de phêsin einai talêthê: to men hôs huph' hou ginetai hê krisis, toutesti to hêgemonikon: to de hôs di' hou, hoion tên akribestatên phantasian. archas te tôn holôn tên te hulên kai to poioun, poiêsin te kai topon: ex hou gar kai huph' hou kai poiôi kai en hôi. telos de einai eph' hôi panta anapheretai, zôên kata pasan aretên teleian, ouk aneu tôn tou sômatos kata phusin kai tôn ektos.
An approximation (and abridgement) of Diogenes Laertius 1.19-21.
[1] The Greek noun hairesis can also mean "choice," so the word meant "what is chosen" (see Mansfeld 1999, 21 ff.).
[2] See Sextus Empiricus, Pyrrhoniae Hypotyposes 1.17.
[3] A doxographer writing about 200 BCE (see Diogenes Laertius 1.19 and Mansfeld 1999, 21 ff.); cf. iota 554.
[4] The Megaric school (also called "Dialectical") is mainly represented by Diodorus Cronus (active in Athens and Alexandria between 315 and 285 BCE), Stilpo (360-280: sigma 1114), and Euclides of Megara (epsilon 3539). The Megarics made significant contributions to modal logic.
[5] The most representative philosopher of this school was Menedemus of Eretria (345-260; see Diogenes Laertius 1.19).
[6] The Cyrenaic school was given its name by Aristippus of Cyrene, a friend of Socrates and a contemporary of Plato; Aristippus was active between the last decades of the fifth century and the first half of the fourth. But the real founder of the school was Aristippus the Younger (see Eusebius, Praeparatio Evangelica 14.18.31-32), who defended the thesis that the real goal of life is the bodily pleasure of the moment. See alpha 3908, alpha 3909. He probably was a forerunner of Epicurus to some extent; however, in distinguishing katastematic pleasure from the kinetic one, Epicurus disagrees with Aristippus, and in general with the Cyrenaics, who just seem to have accepted the kinetic pleasure. (For details on this issue, see Diogenes Laertius 10.136-137.) Other important Cyrenaic philosophers were Antipater of Cyrene and Aristotle of Cyrene.
[7] Epicurus (epsilon 2404) and the Epicureans.
[8] The way of life related to Anniceris (alpha 2466), a Cyrenaic philosopher (see Brunschwig 1999, 251ff.).
[9] The school or way of life linked with Theodorus, another Cyrenaic philosopher. See theta 150; Diogenes Laertius 2.98.
[10] Zeno of Citium, the founder of Stoicism (zeta 79).
[11] The way of life related to Plato's Academy, even though the Academic way of life here must stand for the Academic skepticism (represented by Arcesilaus and Carneades; cf. Diogenes Laertius 7.19).
[12] The way of life related to Aristotle's Lyceum or Peripatos.
[13] The Cynic school, founded by Diogenes of Sinope (delta 1143).
[14] Elis, the city where the famous philosopher Pyrrho, the founder of Greek skepticism (360-270: pi 3238, cf. pi 3241), was born.
[15] The philosopher Clitomachus (according to Sextus, M. 9.182, Carneades' pupil) is representative of this school.
[16] This Suda passage is quoting Sextus Empiricus, Pyrrhoniae Hypotyposes 1.16, in a slightly different way.
[17] See pi 2127; cf. Greek Anthology 6.21.9; 11.131.3.
[18] This is a probable reference to the Stoic criterion of truth "apprehensive presentation" (kataleptike phantasia), that which comes about from what is and it is formed in exact accordance with what is (see Diogenes Laertius 7.46; Sextus, M. 7. 248; 11.183 with Frede's comments in 1999, 300-321).
[19] This is again Stoic doctrine: see Diogenes Laertius 7.134, and alpha 4092.
[20] See Stobaeus, Ecloga 2.76, 22-23 (ed. Wachsmuth).
[21] See Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics 1138a5 ff.; 1101a14ff.
Brunschwig, J. 1999, "Introduction: The beginnings of Hellenistic Epistemology," in Algra, K., Barnes, J., Mansfeld, J., Schofield, M. (eds.) The Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy, Cambridge 1999
Giannantoni, G. (ed.) Socratis et Socraticorum reliquiae, Naples 1990 (4 vols.)
Frede, M., "Stoic Epistemology," in Algra et al. (eds.), cited above
Mansfeld, J. "Sources," in Algra et al. (eds.), cited above
Keywords: biography; chronology; definition; ethics; philosophy
Translated by: Marcelo Boeri on 1 May 2001@21:48:12.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (cosmetics) on 8 September 2002@16:51:20.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 9 September 2002@03:31:34.
Elizabeth Vandiver (Added italics; cosmetics) on 20 January 2006@18:19:27.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 16 May 2012@06:37:27.
Catharine Roth (coding) on 22 February 2015@23:47:10.
Catharine Roth (expanded abbreviations) on 22 February 2015@23:55:39.
Catharine Roth on 23 February 2015@00:07:49.

Headword: Eukleidês
Adler number: epsilon,3539
Translated headword: Eukleides, Euclides
Vetting Status: high
Of Megara (the Megara on the Isthmus [of Corinth]),[1] philosopher, and founder of the Megarian sect named after him,[2] which was also, of course, known as Dialectical and Eristic. He was a pupil of Socrates;[3] after him Ichthyas[4] and then Stilpon[5] headed the school. He wrote dialogues [called] Alkibiades, Aischines, Kriton, Phoinix, Lamprias, Erotic, etc.
Greek Original:
Eukleidês, Megareus [Megarôn de tôn en tôi Isthmôi], philosophos, kai tên ex autou klêtheisan Megarikên hairesin eisêgagen, hên dê kai Dialektikên kai Eristikên prosagoreutheisan. gegone de mathêtês Sôkratous: meth' hon Ichthuas, eita Stilpôn eschon tên scholên. sunegrapse dialogous Alkibiadên, Aischinên, Kritôna, Phoinika, Lamprian, Erôtikon: kai alla tina.
c.450-c.380 BCE; see generally G.E.L. Owen in OCD(4) s.v. Euclides(1).
[1] The parenthesis serves to distinguish this Megara from Megara Hyblaea in Sicily.
[2] See generally D.N. Sedley in OCD(4) s.v. Megarian school.
[3] For whom see generally sigma 829.
[4] No Suda entry, but see in brief Diogenes Laertius 2.110 and 6.80.
[5] For whom see generally sigma 1114.
Keywords: biography; chronology; geography; philosophy
Translated by: David Whitehead on 21 May 2003@05:06:31.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth on 22 July 2003@00:37:22.
David Whitehead (modified and augmented notes; cosmetics) on 22 July 2003@03:43:47.
David Whitehead on 7 November 2012@05:17:54.
David Whitehead on 3 August 2014@08:45:50.

Headword: Hoti ta epikêruttomena
Adler number: omicron,741
Translated headword: that the proclaimed
Vetting Status: high
[That the proclaimed] monies [sc. as rewards] for certain things used to be placed on altars [...].
Greek Original:
Hoti ta epikêruttomena tisi chrêmata epi tôn bômôn etitheto.
Abridged from Harpokration s.v., which continues 'Isaeus in the [speech] In reply to Euclides the Socratic [Isaeus fr. 65 Sauppe] has stated'.
Keywords: definition; law; religion; rhetoric
Translated by: David Whitehead on 12 December 2000@09:48:08.
Vetted by:
Catharine Roth (set status) on 5 February 2004@00:54:25.
David Whitehead (more keywords; cosmetics) on 5 February 2004@03:14:20.
David Whitehead (tweaks) on 13 July 2011@06:31:42.
David Whitehead on 20 May 2016@05:00:03.

Headword: Sôkratês
Adler number: sigma,829
Translated headword: Socrates, Sokrates
Vetting Status: high
The son of Sophroniscus, a stonecutter, and, as his mother, of Phaenarete, a midwife. At first he [sc. too] became a stonecutter, so that they say that his task was the Graces embedded in Athens; then, he took up philosophy after hearing the lectures of Anaxagoras of Clazomenae, then of Damon, and then of Archelaus. Aristoxenus however says that he listened to Archelaus first. He also said that he [sc. Socrates] became his [sc. Archelaos'] beloved, and was very intense in erotic matters, but without any wrong-doing, as Porphyry says in the Philosophic History.[1] When he had arrived at manhood he went on campaign to Amphipolis and Potidaea and [sc. he fought] at Delion. He was married twice, to Xanthippe, from whom he begot a son Lamprocles, and then as a second wife, to Myrto, the daughter of Aristeides the Just, by whom were born Sophroniscus and Menedemus or Menexenus, as some think.[2] And he lived approximately in the time of the Peloponnesian War, in the 77th Olympiad,[3] and he lived 80 years, then because of the irrationality -- or rather the madness -- of the Athenians, was forced to drink hemlock and died, having left nothing in writing or, as some claim, a hymn to Apollo and Artemis and an Aesopic fable in epic verse. Among the philosophers he trained was Plato, who left the Lyceum, a place in Athens, and transferred the school in a suburb, called the Academy, and those who followed were called the Academics until Aristotle. Now he [sc. Aristotle] had been a disciple of Plato and passed his time in a certain garden outside the city. From his strolling around he gave the name Peripatetics to his followers. Amongst them was Aristippus the Cyrenaean, who introduced his own sect and established a school called the Cyrenaic; Phaedo the Elean, who established his school called after him the Eleatic, but later it was called the Eretrian -- since Menedemus taught in Eretria -- and from this teacher Pyrrhus too arose; Antisthenes, who introduced the Cynic sect; Euclides of Megara, who established his own school, which is named Megarian after him, but from Clinomachus the disciple of Euclides it was [sc. also] called the Dialectic [school]; Xenophon the son of Gryllus; Aeschines; Lysanias of Sphettos;[4] Cebes of Thebes, Glaucon of Athens; Bryson of Heraclea -- [it was he] who introduced eristic dialectic after Euclides, whereas Clinomachus augmented it, and whereas many came on account of it, it came to an end with Zeno of Citium, for he gave it the name Stoic, after its location [a stoa], this having occurred in the 105th Olympiad (but some [say that] Bryson was a student not of Socrates but of Euclides; Pyrrho was also a student of his, from whom the Pyrrhics get their name); Alcibiades, Critobulus, Xenomedon, and Apollodorus, [all of them] Athenians; in addition Crito and Simo(n), Eumares the Philasian [= Phliasian], Simmias the Theban, Terpsion the Megarian, Chaerephon. And Theodorus, who was called 'the atheist', also was a disciple of his; holding an opinion about moral indifference and teaching it, he founded his own sect, which is called the Theodoran.
[It is said] that[5] when Socrates took up philosophy, he became a student of Archelaus the natural philosopher. But he placed moral philosophy first[6] and had well-known citizens [sc. as students]: Plato, Xenophon, Alcibiades, Critias, Antisthenes; the Thebans Simmias and Cebes; the Cyrenaean Aristippus, Phaedon, and Euclides the Megarian. He said that a guardian spirit [daimonion] associated with him. He even learned to play the kithara from Conon, although he was already elderly.[7] When he was teased by Solon,[8] he said, 'Better a late learner than ignorant'. By Xanthippe he fathered Sophroniscus and Lamprocles. He was envied because most of the young men were erotically attracted to him. And first Aristophanes wrote a comedy, the Clouds, against him, charging that he corrupted the youth and was an atheist, because he swore by 'the dog' and 'the plane-tree'[9] in an exaggeration of religiosity. Finally Anytus and Meletus indicted him on these charges and won their case. In the assessing of punishments he proposed dinners in the Prytaneum whereas they proposed death.[10] Moreover he was confined for some time until the delegation of official observers should return from Delos. And it was not allowed, once the ship had set sail until it returned to port, for anyone to be judicially executed. Although Crito proposed exile for him, he rejected the idea, for he said that one ought not to violate the laws. When he had drunk the hemlock, he recalled a vow he had made and said, 'Sacrifice to Asclepius'. A man by the name of Cyrsas,[11] of Chian stock, came to associate with Socrates. As he slept by the tomb, [Socrates] appeared in a dream and conversed with him. So he straightway sailed home having only this profit from the philosopher.
Greek Original:
Sôkratês, Sôphroniskou lithoxoou kai mêtros Phainaretês maias: proteron genomenos lithoxoos, hôste kai phasin autou ergon einai tas Athênêsin endedumenas Charitas: eita philosophêsas dia to akousai Anaxagorou tou Klazomeniou, eita Damônos, eita Archelaou. Aristoxenos de Archelaou prôton auton diakousai legei: gegonenai de autou kai paidika, sphodrotaton te peri ta aphrodisia, alla adikêmatos chôris, hôs Porphurios en têi Philosophôi historiai phêsin. eis de andras elthôn estrateusato eis te Amphipolin kai Potidaian kai epi Dêliôi. kai gametais de sunôikêse duo, Xanthippêi, aph' hês eschen huion Lamproklea: kai deuterai Murtoi, têi Aristeidou tou dikaiou thugatri, ex hês egeneto Sôphroniskos kai Menedêmos ê Menexenos, hôs tisi dokei. kai epi men tôn Peloponnêsiakôn gegonen, hôs tupôi eipein, olumpiadi oz#, ebiô de etê p#, eita alogiai, mallon de aponoiai tôn Athênaiôn biastheis piein kôneion apethanen, engraphon ouden katalipôn ê, hôs tines boulontai, humnon eis Apollôna kai Artemin, kai muthon Aisôpeion di' epôn. philosophous de eirgasato Platôna, hos katalipôn to Lukeion, topos de houtos Athênôn, metêgage tên scholên en proasteiôi, têi Akadêmiai prosagoreuomenêi, kai hoi ap' autou Akadêmaïkoi prosêgoreuthêsan mechri Aristotelous: autos gar akroatês tou Platônos genomenos, eis kêpon tina pro tês poleôs tas diatribas poiêsamenos ek tou kat' auton peripatou Peripatêtikous ônomase tous ap' autou: kai Aristippon Kurênaion, hos idian hairesin eisêgage kai scholên sunestêsato, tên Kurênaïkên klêtheisan: Phaidôna Êleion, kai auton idian sustêsanta scholên, tên Êleiakên ap' autou klêtheisan, husteron de hautê Eretriakê eklêthê, Menedêmou eis Eretrian didaxantos: ek toutou de tou didaskalou kai ho Purrôn gegonen: Antisthenên, hos tên Kunikên eisêgagen hairesin: Eukleidên Megarea, kai auton idian sustêsamenon scholên, hêtis ap' autou eklêthê Megarikê, apo de Kleinomachou tou mathêtou Eukleidou eklêthê Dialektikê: Xenophônta Grullou, Aischinên, Lusanian Sphêttion, Kebêta Thêbaion, Glaukôna Athênaion, Brusôna Hêrakleôtên: hos tên eristikên dialektikên eisêgage meta Eukleidou, êuxêse de Kleinomachos, kai pollôn di' autês elthontôn, elêxen eis Zênôna ton Kitiea: houtos gar ap' autou Stôïkên ek tou topou tên scholên ônomase, gegonôs epi tês rke# Olumpiados: tines de Brusôna ou Sôkratous, all' Eukleidou akroatên graphousi: toutou de kai Purrôn êkroasato, aph' houper hoi Purrôneioi prosagoreuomenoi: Alkibiadên, Kritoboulon, Xenomêdên, Apollodôron Athênaious: eti de Kritôna kai Simôna, Eumarê Philiasion, Simmian Thêbaion, Terpsiôna Megarikon, Chairephônta. kai Theodôros de, ho epiklêtheis atheos, autou diêkousen: adiaphorian de doxazôn kai paradidous hairesin idian heuren, hêtis Theodôreios eklêthê. tauta peri Sôkratous. hoti Sôkratês philosophêsas husteron Archelaou tou phusikou mathêtês egeneto: tên êthikên de epresbeuse philosophian. esche de gnôrimous politas men Platôna, Xenophônta, Alkibiadên, Kritian, Antisthenên: Thêbaious de Simmian kai Kebêta: Kurênaion de Aristippon, Phaidôna, Eukleidên Megarea. daimonion d' autôi prosomilein elegen. emanthane de kai kitharizein para Konôni, gerôn êdê ôn: skôphtheis de hupo Solônos, opsimathês eipe mallon ê amathês. ek Xanthippês de esche Sôphroniskon kai Lamproklea. tôn neôn de tôn pleistôn erôtikôs peri auton schontôn, ephthonêthê. kai prôtos Aristophanês tas Nephelas grapsas ekômôidêsen auton hôs diaphtheironta tous neous kai atheon, dioti ton kuna kai platanon di' huperbolên deisidaimonias ômnuen: husteron de Anutos kai Melêtos epi toutois auton egrapsanto kai heilon: en tôi timêmati de heauton tês en tôi prutaneiôi sitêseôs etimêsato, hoi de thanatou etimêsan. ededeto oun epi polu, mechris an hê apo Dêlou Theôris aphikêtai. kai ouk exên achtheisês, prin epanelthein, anaireisthai tina kata dikên. Kritônos de autôi phugên sumbouleusantos, ouk êboulêthê, tous nomous eipôn dein mê parabainein. piôn de to kôneion, euchês epimnêstheis, thusate, ephê, tôi Asklêpiôi. Kursas de tis onoma, Chios to genos, hôs sunesomenos êlthe Sôkratei: hôi katheudêsanti para ton taphon onar ophtheis hômilêsen. apepleuse de euthus ekeinos, touto monon apolausas tou philosophou.
469-399 BCE. See also sigma 830, and generally Alexander Nehamas in OCD4) s.v. Socrates.
Comparison of similar texts reveals no firm source for the entirety of this material, the closest being Diogenes Laertius' biography in his Lives of the Philosophers (D.L. 2.18-47). Rather than annotate the overwhelming list of names in this entry, I shall comment only on those presenting some problem or question. The rest may be found in OCD4, but for a discussion of the more significant names put into the context of their schools, see the Vander Waerdt anthology in the bibliography below.
[1] No work entitled The Philosophical History is attributed to the third and fourth century CE Neo-Platonist Porphyry. What we now call by that title is Damascius' work formerly called The Life of Isidore. See web address 1 below.
[2] Or perhaps Aristeides' granddaughter. According to the biographers Plutarch (Aristeides 27.3) and Diogenes Laertius (2.26), this story goes back to Aristotle and would make Socrates a bigamist; cf. lambda 377. Plutarch at 27.4 doubts the alleged work of Aristotle is really the philosopher's and refers to a strong refutation of the tale by Panaetius (fr. 132).
[3] The 77th Olympiad is 470-467, much too early for the Peloponnesian War (431-404). Evidently there is some compression or carelessness here, and we should read '[having been born] in the 77th Olympiad.
[4] So the transmitted text, but probably the name Lysanias should be genitive, not accusative, i.e. Aeschines, son of Lysanias, of Sphettos; cf. under alphaiota 346.
[5] With this sentence another source appears to take over, repeating some of the earlier material and adding more.
[6] cf. epsilon 2859.
[7] The name should be Konnos: see Plato, Euthydemus 272C (and cf. kappa 2048?). For the kithara see generally kappa 1590.
[8] Solon, who died in 560/559, could hardly have taunted Socrates, who died in 399. Furthermore, the reproach seems an odd one to attribute to Solon, whose famous verse 'I grow old, constantly learning many things' (fr.18) had wide currency in antiquity.
[9] The notion that Socrates swore by a plane tree derives from a confused memory of the scene in Plato, Phaedrus 236E, where Phaedrus (not Socrates) playfully suggests he will swear by the plane tree growing on the banks of the Ilissus, where they sit for their discussion. Aristophanes does not charge him with this oath in the Clouds. It occurs several times in Plato, e.g. Gorgias 461A and 482B. In the latter instance it is given more fully as 'by the dog, the god of the Egyptians.' Anubis, perhaps?
[10] cf. tau 628.
[11] This term, ku/rsas, otherwise appears only as a participle in the Epic language meaning 'having happened upon', but nowhere as a proper name.
Paul A. Vander Waerdt, ed., The Socratic Movement. Cornell University Press, 1994
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; chronology; dialects, grammar, and etymology; dreams; epic; ethics; food; gender and sexuality; geography; history; law; military affairs; meter and music; philosophy; religion; science and technology; trade and manufacture; women
Translated by: Oliver Phillips ✝ on 9 August 2003@18:01:06.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented headword and keywords; added initial note; modified note 3; reversed notes 4 and 5; cosmetics) on 10 August 2003@07:27:42.
David Whitehead (augmented notes; cosmetics) on 11 August 2003@07:03:11.
David Whitehead (x-ref in n.2.) on 27 August 2004@08:04:37.
Catharine Roth (fixed wrong note number, reported by Andrew Smith) on 11 October 2004@00:55:33.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 9 October 2005@08:44:54.
David Whitehead (another keyword) on 20 November 2005@09:35:18.
David Whitehead (another note (on Aeschines)) on 14 October 2010@07:51:33.
Catharine Roth (tweaked notes) on 7 December 2013@00:01:09.
Catharine Roth (deleted a link) on 7 December 2013@00:07:02.
David Whitehead (more keywords; tweaking; raised status) on 31 December 2013@03:58:03.
David Whitehead on 9 August 2014@11:42:58.
David Whitehead (tweaked tr at one point; another x-ref) on 5 February 2016@04:03:33.

Headword: Surinx
Adler number: sigma,1664
Translated headword: pipe, tube
Vetting Status: high
[Meaning] the part of the axle inserted into the nave of the wheel.
The nave of the wheel is also called so.[1] Sophocles [writes]: "that man [i.e. Orestes] holding fast to the very final column, was always almost keeping close to the pipe".[2]
A syrinx [is] also [sc. any] longish conduit.
"And these men he ordered to cut a deep canal under the crest of the hill".[3]
Also [sc. attested is the genitive] su/riggos, [meaning] a [sc. musical] pipe,[4] or a spear-case.[5]
The Pisidian [writes]: "which law of Euclid persuaded [someone] to measure out the wise and industrious bee, but to make the pipes [...] not in a straight line?"[6]
Greek Original:
Surinx: to eis tên opên tou trochou emballomenon meros tou axonos. kai hê opê tou trochou houtô kaleitai. Sophoklês: keinos d' hup' autên eschatên stêlên echôn enchrimpt' aei suringa. Surinx kai hê epimêkês diôrux. kai toutous keleuei suringa batheian hupo ton lophon trêsasthai. kai Suringos, aulou, ê doratothêkês. Pisidês: tis tên melittan tên sophên tên ergatin geômetrein epeisen Eukleidou nomos, poiein de tas suringas ouk ep' eutheias;
LSJ entry at web address 1.
[1] cf. chi 359.
[2] Sophocles, Electra 720-1, with scholion; cf. epsilon 4044, sigma 1083.
[3] Quotation unidentifiable.
[4] cf. generally alpha 4447.
[5] So in Homer, Iliad 19.387.
[6] George of Pisidia, Hexameron 1165-66, 1176, 1178.
James Howard-Johnston, "George of Pisidia", in Witnesses to a World Crisis: historians and histories of the Middle East in the seventh century. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2010, 16-35
Associated internet address:
Web address 1
Keywords: biography; Christianity; definition; dialects, grammar, and etymology; epic; geography; historiography; history; military affairs; meter and music; poetry; religion; science and technology; trade and manufacture; tragedy; zoology
Translated by: Yannick Muller on 9 August 2012@04:39:18.
Vetted by:
David Whitehead (augmented notes and keywords; tweaks and cosmetics) on 9 August 2012@05:37:28.
Catharine Roth (added note) on 24 September 2013@23:29:16.
David Whitehead on 5 January 2014@05:39:51.
Catharine Roth (tweaked link) on 29 May 2022@19:29:29.


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